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South and Central America

NUPI's research on South and Central America has focused on dynamics of international cooperation on peace and conflict, as well as on environmental governance.

The political stability of the region's democracies amidst domestic and global challenges is an issue that cuts across these topics. Norway's relationship to the countries in the region is an important aspect of all our research.
Media
Media
Media

BRICS - en allianse mot verden

BRICS utvidast. Russland overtar samstundes leiarskapen i organisasjonen som utfordrar Vesten. Kva kan skje? NUPI-forskar Julie Wilhelmsen er ein av deltakarane i denne samtala i NRK-programmet Debatt i P2.

  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • South and Central America
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  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • South and Central America
Publications
Publications
Research paper

The EU Trapped in the Venezuelan Labyrinth: Challenges to Finding a Way Out

This report explores how EU Foreign and Security Policy towards the political crisis in Venezuela can be assessed against the backdrop of diverging positions within the EU and as well as between the EU, the United States and other powers. The EU’s Venezuela policy has been anchored in three main pillars: first, supporting dialogue platforms between the government and the opposition; second, sanctioning the Maduro regime to force it to negotiate; and third, providing humanitarian aid helping neighbouring countries’ attend to the massive migratory flow of Venezuelans. Intra-EU contestation was linked to the recognition of opposition leader Guaidó as Venezuela’s interim president in 2019, but has eased since the EU dropped its recognition in 2021. Multipolar competition, and how it plays into patterns of regional fragmentation, has been another significant obstacle to the EU achieving its main foreign policy goal of free, fair and democratic elections. In the future, the EU approach should build on the renewed consensus between member states and focus on mediation, conditional sanctions relief, electoral observation, parliamentary diplomacy, support for regional governance and interregional cooperation.

  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • South and Central America
  • The EU
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  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • South and Central America
  • The EU
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Constraints, Dilemmas and Challenges for EU Foreign Policy in Venezuela

Years of increasingly authoritarian rule and economic mismanagement by President Nicolás Maduro have turned Venezuela into a source of regional instability. The European Union’s (EU) main foreign policy objective towards the country has been a peaceful transition to free and transparent elections and its re-introduction into regional and global trade and political frameworks. The strategies pursued by the EU to mitigate the constraints on its foreign policy towards Venezuela have helped to bring about more EU unity, but have failed to have a significant impact in the country itself. Multipolar competition between the EU and the United States (US) on the one hand and between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Russia on the other, have undermined the EU’s attempts to contribute a peaceful solution to the process. Most recently, the war on Ukraine has created a new dilemma for the EU in its dealings with Venezuela, that is, having to navigate between maintaining pressure on the Maduro regime, keeping up momentum for negotiations and deciding whether to follow the US in resuming oil trade with Caracas to mitigate the energy crisis in Europe.

  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • South and Central America
  • The EU
TIS.PNG
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • South and Central America
  • The EU
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Center

Norwegian Centre for Geopolitics (GEOPOL)

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
  • International economics
  • Economic growth
  • Trade
  • International investments
  • Globalisation
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • North America
  • South and Central America
  • The Arctic
  • The Nordic countries
  • Oceania
  • Conflict
  • Nation-building
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Oceans
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • United Nations
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
  • International economics
  • Economic growth
  • Trade
  • International investments
  • Globalisation
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • North America
  • South and Central America
  • The Arctic
  • The Nordic countries
  • Oceania
  • Conflict
  • Nation-building
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Oceans
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • United Nations
Event
09:30 - 11:00
NUPI/Livestream to Facebook and Youtube
Engelsk
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Event
09:30 - 11:00
NUPI/Livestream to Facebook and Youtube
Engelsk
8. Mar 2023
Event
09:30 - 11:00
NUPI/Livestream to Facebook and Youtube
Engelsk

Building Sustainable Democracy in Latin America and the Caribbean

How can the Escazú Agreement contribute to democracy building?

Publications
Publications
Report

Stakeholder Networks in International Development Projects in the Amazon rainforest

The governance of environmental issues has become a central challenge in world politics. These issues are often complex, thus requiring flows of knowledge and resource from multiple actors across multiple levels. International development cooperation is a channel for these varied sets of actors to join their efforts in concrete projects and policies, allowing for global engagement with local envi- ronmental challenges. It thus can anchor policy networks capable of structuring polycentric modes governance. Yet, empirical research has shown that policy networks are sites of political disputes, (re)producing power rela- tions and affecting the capacity of different social groups to influence relevant outcomes. In this brief, we examine such dynamics in the network of stakeholders involved in development, execution or governance of internationally funded projects in the Amazon.

  • South and Central America
  • Climate
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  • South and Central America
  • Climate
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

The Amazon rainforest and the global–regional politics of ecosystem governance

This article examines the global–regional politics of ecosystem governance through the case of the Amazon rainforest. Despite the bourgeoning literature on global and regional environmental politics, the interplay of these dynamics in ecosystem governance has still received limited attention. I here propose that the politics of ecosystem governance are rooted in a dispute over the realization of alternative ecosystem services. When global actors become invested in promoting ecosystem preservation to secure the realization services with diffuse benefits, it can affect cooperation at the regional level. Ecosystem-adjacent states can perceive external interest as a threat, building regional cooperation as a tool to defend sovereignty, but also as an opportunity, using it to bargain the terms of their stewardship. I use this framework to trace the evolution of regional cooperation in the Amazon, demonstrating how it was developed in response to this ecosystem's growing global salience. Through defensive sovereignty and bargained stewardship, regional cooperation helped Amazon states to cap international commitment and limit external influence in the region but also allowed for building some form of coordinated ecosystem protection. The research sheds new light on both the potential and the limitations of global–regional engagements for the preservation of the Amazon and other analogous cross-border ecosystems.

  • Regional integration
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • South and Central America
  • Governance
  • International organizations
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  • Regional integration
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • South and Central America
  • Governance
  • International organizations
Publications
Publications
Anne Funnemark, Asha Ali, Cedric H. de Coning, Elisabeth L. Rosvold, Florian Krampe, Kheira Tarif, Katongo Seyuba, Dr Farah Hegazi, Caroline Delgado

Climate, Peace and Security Fact Sheet: Colombia

In this new Fact Sheet from the joint NUPI and SIPRI’s joint Climate-related Peace and Security Risks Project (CPSR) team explore the nexus between climate change, peace and security.

  • South and Central America
  • Peace operations
  • Climate
  • United Nations
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  • South and Central America
  • Peace operations
  • Climate
  • United Nations

Climate, Peace and Security in Colombia

In this new Fact Sheet from NUPI and SIPRI’s joint Climate-related Peace and Security Risks Project (CPSR) team explore the nexus between climate change, peace and security.
  • South and Central America
  • Peace operations
  • Climate
  • United Nations

Climate, Peace and Security Fact Sheet: Colombia

In 2016, the Government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) signed the Final Peace Agreement, linking the country’s peace process to comprehensive rural reform, reintegration of former combatants and addressing illicit crop cultivation, among other issues. The Peace Agreement is hailed as a landmark achievement for ending the armed conflict in Colombia. It includes reference to environmental and biodiversity protection, respect for environmental and human rights, and sustainable development, as components of the peace process. Nevertheless, implementation of the Peace Agreement can give rise to challenges for environmental protection and climate action in Colombia. Comprehensive rural reform, a core component of the Peace Agreement, may increase natural resource extraction, contribute to environmental degradation and accentuate climate vulnerabilities. Furthermore, numerous non-state armed groups (NSAGs) continue to drive violence, insecurity and displacement, heightening the vulnerability of the conflict-affected population to climate change and environmental degradation. This Fact Sheet focuses on Colombia’s peace process since 2016 and how climate-related security risks interact with specific provisions of the Peace Agreement.
  • South and Central America
  • Peace operations
  • Climate
  • United Nations
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