Peacekeeping is one of the most prominent tools available to the United Nations for the maintenance of international peace and security. The former Secretary-General of the United Nations (UN), Ban Ki-moon, referred to peacekeeping as the flagship enterprise of the UN.However, a mixed record of successes and failures, an unprecedented high number of fatalities, and new threats like violent extremism have raised questions as to whether UN peacekeeping is still fit for purpose. The UN and other international organizations conducting peace operations, including the African Union (AU) and the European Union (EU), are therefore under increasing pressure to justify the effectiveness and impact of their engagement.At this seminar, we will turn our attention to the effectiveness of the UN missions in Mali (MINUSMA) and South Sudan (UNMISS). Researchers from the Effectiveness of Peace Operations (EPON) research network will present findings from their research into these two operations. Each presentation will be followed by a panel, consisting of a representative from the UN missions as well as a representative from a local civil society organisations from the country.