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Selected publications by the Consortium researchers


Selected publications by the Consortium researchers



Publications by scholars from the Consortium's associated partners:



Scientific articles, book chapters and reports:

Ahmed, U. (2023). Enemies in Iraq, Human Beings in Norway: ‘Multilocal’ Boundaries between Radicalised Sunni and Shi‘a Muslims. Sociology, Vol 57, Issue 6.

Ahmed, U. (2023). Reflections on racialisation’s impact on research: Insights from a study of Muslim radicalisation in Norway. Current Sociology.

Ahmed, U. (2023). Violence is Islam, Violence is Not Islam: Meaning-Making Among Muslim Men in Norway. The British Journal of Criminology.

Allchorn, W. & Kondor, K. (2023). Policing of the Far-Right Online: The Cases of the UK and Hungary. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism.

Augestad Knudsen, R. (2023). Why Terrorism Researchers Should Care about Criminal
Responsibility. Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol 17, Issue 1.

Augestad Knudsen, R. (2023). Naturalisation through mainstreaming Counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation in UN and EU discourse, in Busher, J., Malkki, L. & Marsden, S. (eds.). The Routledge Handbook on Radicalisation and Countering Radicalisation (1st edition). 384-398. London: Routledge.

Bjørgo, T. (2023). Introduction to the Special Section on Anti-Government Extremism.
Perspectives on Terrorism. Vol 17, Issue 1.

Christensen, T. W., Lindekilde, L., Sivenbring, J., Bjørgo, T., Magnæs Gjelsvik, I., Solhjell, R., Haugstvedt, H., Malmros, R. A., Kangasniem, M. & Kallio, H. (2023). “Being a risk” or “being at risk”: Factors shaping negotiation of concerns of radicalization within multiagency collaboration in the Nordic countries. Democracy and Security. 1–24.

Ellefsen, R., Jämte, J. & Sjøen, M. (2023). Key dilemmas in the prevention of radicalization and violent extremism. Journal of Deradicalization.

Ellefsen, R. & Sjøen, M. (2023). Chapter 10 Norway, in McNeil-Willson, R. & Triandafyllidou, A. (eds.). Routledge Handbook of Violent Extremism and Resilience. 153-167. London: Routledge.

Gråtrud, H. (2023). “Jihadismens utvikling i Jordan,” BabylonLia, Brynjar (2023), “al Qaida revisited,” Bustan: The Middle East Book Review.

Gøtzsche-Astrup, O., Lindekilde, L. Fjellman, A.M., Bjørgo, T., Solhjell, R., Haugstvedt, H., Sivenbring, J., Andersson Malmros, R., Kangasniemi, M., Moilanen, T., Magnæs, I., Wilchen Christensen, T. & Mattsson, C. (2023). Trust in interagency collaboration: The role of institutional logics and hybrid professionals. Journal of Professions and Organizations, Vol 10, Issue 1, February 2023. 65–79.

Haghish, E. F., Obaidi, M., Strømme, T., Bjørgo, T. & Grønnerød, C. (2023). Mental Health, Well-Being, and Adolescent Extremism: A Machine Learning Study on Risk and Protective Factors. Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology.

Jupskås, A. R. & Bjørgo, T. (2023). The Evolution of the Extreme Right in Norway Since the 1990s. In: Katherine Kondor, Mark Littler (eds.). The Routledge Handbook of Far-Right Extremism in Europe. Routledge.

Kunkeler, C. (2023). Finland and Military Volunteers in the Swedish Fascist Imaginary, 1809-1944. The Historical Journal. Cambridge Core.

Kunkeler, C. (2023). The Swedish Brigade: From National Romantic Heroes to European Counter-Revolutionaries? European History Quarterly, Vol 53, Issue 1.

Kupper, J., Rekawek, K. & Kriner, M. (2023). Terrorgram’s First Saint: Analyzing Accelerationist Terrorism in Bratislava. The Accelerationism Research Consortium.

Lewis, J., Molloy, J. & Macklin, G. (2023). The Lineage of Violence: Saints Culture and Militant Accelerationist Terrorism. GNET.

Lindström, J., Bergh, R., Akrami, N., Obaidi, M. & Öymyr, T. L. (2023). Who endorses groupbased violence? Group Processes and Intergroup Relations.

Mattheis, A., Amarasingam, A., Macklin, G. & Argentino, M. A. (2023). The Allen, Texas, Attack: Ideological Fuzziness and the Contemporary Nature of Far-Right Violence. CTC Sentinel.

Munden, H. P. (2023). Cognitive Distortions in Men Who Have Exited White Supremacist Groups. Terrorism and Political Violence.

Munden, H. P. (2023). Extremist group exits: what autobiographies by male right-wing formers reveal about identity transformation. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression.

Nesser, P. (2023). Introducing the Jihadi Plots in Europe dataset (JPED). Journal of Peace Research.

Nesser, P. (2023). Foiled versus Launched Terror Plots: Some Lessons Learned. Routledge Handbook of Transnational Terrorism.

Obaidi, M., Anjum, G., Bierwiaczonek, K. & Kunst, J. (2023). Cultural threat perceptions predict violent extremism via need for cognitive closure. PNAS.

Obaidi, M., Bergh, R., Akrami, N. & Dovidio, J. F. (2023). The personality of violent Jihadists: Examining violent and nonviolent defense of Muslims. Journal of Personality.

Perliger, A., Stevens, C. & Leidig, E. (2023). Mapping the Ideological Landscape of Extreme Misogyny. ICCT.

Ravndal, J. A., Tandberg, C., Sessolo, S., Jupskås, A. R. & Bjørgo, T. (2023). RTV Trend Report 2023. C-REX Research Report 1/2023. Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.

Rekawek, K. (2023). A Year of Foreign Fighting for Ukraine. Counter Extremism Project.


Other publications:

Bjørgo, T., Solhjell. R., Lindekilde, L. & Sivenbring, J. (2023). The Same, But Different: Policies, Perceptions and Practices of Multiagency PVE work in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. Right Now! Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.



Scientific articles, book chapters and reports:

Bjørgo, T. (2022). Anti-Government Extremism: A New Threat? Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol 16, Issue 6. 2-8.

Bjørgo, T. Braddock, K. (eds. 2022). Special Issue on Anti-Government Extremism. Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol 16, Issue 6.

Bjørgo, T., Thomassen, G. & Strype, J. (2022). Harassment and Threats towards Politicians: A survey of Norwegian parliamentarians, cabinet ministers and executive committee members of political parties and their youth wings Oslo: PHS Forskning 2021

Bjørgo, T. Jupskås, R.A. Thomassen, G. Strype, J. (2022). Patterns and Consequences of Threats
Towards Politicians: Results from Surveys of National and Local Politicians in Norway. Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol 16, issue 6. 100-119.

Bøås, M. & Cisse, W.A. (2022). The sheik versus the president: the making of Imam Dicko as a
political Big Man in Mali. Islamist Social Movements and Hybrid Regime, Vol 3, issue 6.

Gade, T. & Bøås, M. (2022). ‘Islamist Social Movements and Hybrid Regime Types in the Muslim World. Third World Thematics: A TWQ Journal. 171-188.

Gattinara, C. P. Froio, C og Pirro, L. A. (2022). Far-right protests mobilisation in Europe:
Grievances, opportunities and resources. European Journal of Political Research, Vol 61, Issue 4.

Haavik, V. Bøås, M and Iocchi, A. (2022). The End of Stability – How Burkina Faso Fell Apart.
African Security, Vol 15, Issue 4. 317-339.

Hassan, I. (2022). Rebel governance? A literature review of Boko Haram and the Islamic State in West Africa Province. Working Paper. NUPI.

Haugstvedt, H. Kruse, L.E. (2022). Gazing inwards: A Discussion of the Potential of Norwegian
Social Workers to Counteract the Negative Looping Effect of Radicalisation Labels. Journal for
Deradicalization, Vol 31. 73-94.

Jupskås, R. A. Fielitz, M. (2022). Far-Right Violence in Greece in Comparative Perspective. Journal of Modern Greek Studies, Vol 40, Issue 1. 95-115.

Ketchley, N. Brooke, S. Lia, B. (2022). Who supported the early Muslim Brotherhood? Politics
and Religion, Vol 15, Issue 2. 388-416.

Lia, B. Becker, A. M. (2022). Crusader Hirelings or Loyal Subjects? Evolving Jihadist
Perspectives on Christian Minorities in the Middle East, Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations

Lia, B. (2022). The Islamic State's Tribal Policies in Syria and Iraq. Third World Thematics.

Lia, B. (2022). Hasan al-Banna et la fondation des Frères musulmans. In Histoire des
mobilisations islamistes (XIXe-XXIe siècles), sous la direction de François Burgat & Matthieu
Rey. 93-106. Paris: CNRS.

Lia, B. (2022). A Kurdish al-Qaida? Making Sense of the Ansar al-Islam Movement in Iraqi
Kurdistan in the Early 2000s. Religions: Special Issue on Islamist Movements in the Middle
East, Vol 13, Issue 3.

Likuski, A. (2022). Al-Qaeda. Leksikonartikkel i The Wiley-Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social &
Political Movements, 2nd edition, eds. David A. Snow, Donatella della Porta, Douglas McAdam and Bert Klandermans.

Macklin, D. G. (2022). The Extreme Right, Climate Change and Terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol 34, Issue 5. 979-996.

Noer, C., Gøtzsche-Astrup, O., Lindekilde, L. Fjellman, A.M., Bjørgo, T., Solhjell, R., Haugstvedt,
H., Carlsson, Y., Sivenbring, J., Andersson Malmros, R., Kangasniemi, M., Moilanen, T., Kallio, H., Magnæs Gjelsvik, I., Wilchen Christensen, T., Mattsson, C. (2022). Public Perceptions of CVE Policies and Attitudes Towards Reporting Concerns of Radicalization in the Nordic Countries. Research report published by the Danish National Center for Prevention of Extremism.

Ravndal, A. J. Tandberg, C. Jupskås, R. A. Thorstensen, M. (2022). RVT Trend Report 2022: RightWing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe, 1990-2021. C-REX Research Report. Oslo: Senter for ekstremismeforskning (CREX).

Rekawek, K. (2022). Foreign Fighters in Ukraine: The Brown–Red Cocktail. Routledge. 256 pages.

Skretting, V. B. (2022). “Pragmatism and Purism in Jihadist Governance: The Islamic Emirate of
Azawad Revisited”, Studies in Conflict & Terrorism.

Skretting, V. B. (2022). “Tribal Engagement Strategies in the Islamic Emirate of Azawad”, Third
World Thematics: A TWQ Journal.

Solhjell, R, J. Sivenbring, M. Kangasniemi, H. Kallio, T. Christensen, H. Haugstvedt & I. M.
Gjelsvik. (2022). Experiencing trust in multiagency collaboration. A Nordic qualitative study.
Journal for Deradicalization. 164-191.

Tveteraas, E. (2022). Under the Hood – Learning and Innovation in the Islamic State’s Suicide
Vehicle Industry. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism.

Tveteraas, E. (2022). Under the Hood – Learning and Innovation in the Islamic State’s Suicide
Vehicle Industry. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism.

Tønnessen, T. (2022). Abu Musab al-Zarqawi. Encyclopedia of Islam.

Other publications:

Busher, J. Ebner, J. Hacsek, Z. Harris, G. & Macklin, G. (2022). The escalation and inhibition of
violence during waves of far-right or anti-minority protests. Right Now! Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.

Haugstvedt, H. (2022). Social workers’ experiences with preventing violent extremism in
Norway. Right Now! Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.

Jupskås, R. A. Ravndal, A. J. Tandberg, C. Thorstensen, M. (2022). Five Myths of Far-Right
Violence. Right Now! Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.

Rekawek, K. (2022). Ukraine’s Foreign Legion: 12 Important Points. Right Now! Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX), University of Oslo.



Scientific articles, book chapters and reports:

Berntzen, L.E. & Bjørgo, T. (2021). Research note: The Term ‘Lone Wolf’ and its Alternatives: Patterns in Public and Academic Use from 2000 to 2020. Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(3), 132-141.

Berntzen, L.E. & Ravndal, J.A. (2021). Monster or Hero? Far-right Responses to Anders Behring Breivik and the July 22, 2011 Terrorist Attacks. Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(3). 

Busher, J, Holbrook, D. & Macklin, G., (2021). ‘How the “internal brakes” on violent escalation work and fail: Towards a conceptual framework for understanding intra-group processes of restraint in militant groups,’ Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, published online 18 January 2021:

Bjørgo, T. & Jupskås, A.R. (2021). Special Issue: The Long-Term Impacts of the July 22, 2011 Attacks in Norway – Ten Years After. Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(3)

Haugstvedt, H. (2021). The Right’s Time to Fly? Exploring the Possibility of Right-Wing Extremists’ Use of UAVs. The RUSI Journal, 166(1), 22-31. DOI: 10.1080/03071847.2021.1906161

Haugstvedt, Håvard (2021). A Flying Threat Coming to Sahel and East Africa? A Brief Review. Journal of Strategic Security (JSS). 14(1), s. 92–105. doi: 10.5038/1944-0472.14.1.1848.

Haugstvedt, Håvard & Gunnarsdottir, Hulda Mjöll (2021). Managing role expectations and emotions in encounters with extremism: Norwegian social workers’ experiences. Qualitative Social Work. doi: 10.1177/14733250211051410.

Haugstvedt, Håvard (2021). Wounding local hearts? Evidence from an empirical study of UAV attacks by state and non-state actors harming civilian populations. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict. doi: 10.1080/17467586.2021.1983853.

Haugstvedt, Håvard & Koehler, Daniel (2021). Armed and Explosive? An Explorative Statistical Analysis of Extremist Radicalization Cases with Military Background. Terrorism and Political Violence. doi: 10.1080/09546553.2021.1957675.

Haugstvedt, Håvard & Sjøen, Martin Meggele (2021). Exploring Youths’ Willingness to Engage with Civil Society and Public Sector Institutions: The Untapped Potential of Religious Communities in Preventing Violent Extremism. Democracy and Security. doi: 10.1080/17419166.2021.1950383.

Kaakinen, M., Oksanen, A., Gadarian, S.K., Solheim, Ø.B., et al. (2021). Online Hate and Zeitgeist of Fear: A Five‐Country Longitudinal Analysis of Hate Exposure and Fear of Terrorism After the Paris Terrorist Attacks in 2015. Political Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/pops.12732.

Karlsrud, John (2021). Future of UN Peace Operations: UN Support Offices to Regional Counterterrorism Operations? Global Observatory.

Kunst, Jonas R.; Obaidi, Milan; Coenen, Ann-Cathrin; Vasseljen, Vilde D. & Gill, Paul (2021). What Makes a Terrorist? Muslims’ and non-Muslims’ Lay Perceptions of Risk Factors and Their Consequences for Counter-terrorism Policy Support. Terrorism and Political Violence. doi: 10.1080/09546553.2021.1967149

Lygren, S. & Ravndal, J.A. (2021). Why Reciprocal Intergroup Radicalisation Happened between Islamists and Anti-Islamists in Britain but Not in Norway. Terrorism and Political Violence. DOI: 10.1080/09546553.2021.1933957

Macklin, G. (2021). ‘“Praise the Saints” – The cumulative momentum of transnational Extreme Right Terrorism’ in Johannes Dafinger and Moritz Florin (eds.), A Transnational History of Right-Wing-Terrorism. Political Violence and the Far Right in Eastern and Western Europe since 1900 (Routledge: Abingdon 2022).

Macklin, G. (2021). ‘The plot to kidnap Michigan Governor Gretchen Whitmer,” CTC Sentinel – Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, vol. 14, no. 6, July/August 2021, pp. 1-15 [feature article]:

Mølmen, Guri Nordtorp & Jacob Aasland Ravndal (2021). Mechanisms of online radicalisation: how the internet affects the radicalisation of extreme-right lone actor terrorists, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, DOI: 10.1080/19434472.2021.1993302

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland; Madeleine Thorstensen; Anders Ravik Jupskås & Graham Macklin (2021). RTV Trend Report 2021: Right Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe, 1990 - 2020, C-REX Research Report No. 1/2021.

Ravndal, J.A. (2021). From Bombs to Books, and Back Again? Mapping Strategies of Right-Wing Revolutionary Resistance. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. DOI: 10.1080/1057610X.2021.1907897

Rekawek, Kacper (2021). "Looks can be deceiving: Extremism meets paramilitarism in Central and Eastern Europe," Counter Extremism Project, June 2021.

Solheim, Ø.B. & Jupskås, A.R. (2021). Consensus or Conflict? A Survey Analysis of how Norwegians Interpret the July 22, 2011 Attacks a Decade Later. Perspectives on Terrorism, 15(3), 109-131.

Sjøen, Martin Meggele & Haugstvedt, Håvard (2021). Neither hard nor soft prevention - On the need to reconfigure contemporary counterterrorism towards smart prevention. I Castanier, Bruno; Cepin, Marko; Bigaud, David & Berenguer, Christophe (Red.), Proceedings of the 31st European Safety and Reliability Conference. Research Publishing Services. s. 498–503. doi: doi%3A10.3850/978-981-18-2016-8076-cd.

Thorleifsson, Cathrine (2021). From Cyberfascism to Terrorism: on 4chan/pol/ Culture and the Transnational Production of Memetic Violence. Nations and Nationalism. 1-16.

Other publications:

Ravndal, J.A. (2021). Do not let the fear of terror rule. Other dangers threaten democracy. RightNow! (July 13, 2021) (Også på norsk som kronikk i Aftenposten)

Rekawek, Kacper (2021). An effective ban on foreign fighting? Wider implications of the Czech policy towards foreign (terrorist) fighters. RightNow! (Sep. 20, 2021)

Rupesinghe, Natasja (2021). The Sahel’s jihadists don’t all govern alike: context matters. The Conversation Africa.

Jupskås, Anders Ravik and Øyvind Bugge Solheim (2021). How do Norwegians interpret July 22 today? Right Now! (July 16, 2021)

Thorstensen, Madeleine and Jacob Aasland Ravndal (2021). Stable trends in unstable times: Right-wing terrorism and violence in Western Europe in 2020. RightNow! (Sep. 13, 2021)


Scientific articles, book chapters and reports:

Brigaglia, A., & Iocchi, A. (2020). Entangled Incidents: Nigeria in the Global War on Terror (1994–2009). African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review, 10(2), 10-42.

Busher, Joel and Tore Bjørgo (2020). Restraint in Terrorist Groups and Radical Milieus: Towards a Research Agenda. In: J. Busher & T. Bjørgo (2020): 2-13.

Bjørgo, Tore and Hanna Munden (2020). What explains why people join and leave far-right groups? In: Anders Ravik Jupskås and Eviane Leidig (Eds., 2020) Knowing what’s (far) right: A compendium.

Bøås, M., & Strazzari, F. (2020). Governance, Fragility and Insurgency in the Sahel: A Hybrid Political Order in the Making. The International Spectator, 55(4), 1-17.

Bøås, M., Cissé, A. W., & Mahamane, L. (2020). Explaining Violence in Tillabéri: Insurgent Appropriation of Local Grievances? The International Spectator, 55(4), 118-132.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Haugstvedt, Håvard (2020). Bridging Wicked Problem and Violent Extremism Research - A research agenda for understanding and assessing local capacity to prevent violent extremism. C-REX Working Paper Series.

Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Ravndal, Jacob Aasland; Renå, Helge; Ilum, Jakob; Hansen, Morten Løw; Eriksen, Jørn Rye; Ishaq, Bushra (2020). Evaluering av politiets og PSTs håndtering av terror­hendelsen i Bærum 10. august 2019. Oslo: Evalueringsutvalget 2020

Fangen, K., & Nilsen, M. R. (2020). Variations within the Norwegian far right: from neo-Nazism to anti-Islamism. Journal of Political Ideologies, 1-20.

Gjelsvik, I. M. (2020). Police reform and community policing in Kenya: The Bumpy road from policy to practice. Journal of Human Security, 16, (2), 19-30.

Gjelsvik, I. M. (2020). Closeness versus distance: Relational aspects of community policing. (ICT4COP Policy Brief #11-2020). Norges miljø- og biovitenskapelige universitet.

Gråtrud, Henrik “When Insularity Becomes a Problem: The Literature on Jihadism in Jordan,” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 2020.

Hansen, David & Tore Bjørgo (2020). Extremist Offender Management in Norway. Chapter 8 in: Rajan Basra and Peter R. Neumann (2020). Extremist Offender Management in Europe: Country Reports. London: ICSR, King’s College London (pp. 65-76).

Haugstvedt, Håvard (2020). The role of social support for social workers engaged in preventing radicalization and violent extremism. Nordic Social Work Research DOI: 10.1080/2156857X.2020.1806102

Haugstvedt, Håvard (2020). Research Note: ‘How Can I Get Them Offstage?’ – Critical Reflections on a Researcher’s Approach to Qualitative Data Collection with Social Workers Involved in Preventing Violent Extremism in Norway. Journal for Deradicalization. June 2020.

Haugstvedt, Håvard and Tore Bjørgo (2020). What can democracies do to prevent extremist violence? In: Anders Ravik Jupskås and Eviane Leidig (Eds., 2020) Knowing what’s (far) right: A compendium.

Haugstvedt, Håvard & Jacobsen, Jan Otto (2020). Taking Fourth-Generation Warfare to the Skies? An Empirical Exploration of Non-State Actors’ Use of Weaponized Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs—‘Drones’) Perspectives on Terrorism. Vol. 14. Issue 5. pp. 26-40.

Hegghammer, Thomas “Afterword. The Uniqueness of Islamic State”, in Stephane J. Baele, Katharine A, Boyde, and Travis G. Coan, ISIS Propaganda: A Full-Spectrum Extremist Message (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2020)

Hegghammer, Thomas, book review, “Incitement: Anwar al-Awlaki’s Western Jihad. By Alexander Melagrou-Hitchens, (Harvard University Press, 2020)”, in War on the Rocks, 30 October 2020.

Hegghammer, Thomas, book review, “Jihadism Constrained: The Limits of Transnational Jihadism and What It Means for Counterterrorism, Barak Mendelsohn, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2019)”, in The Middle East Journal (2020).

Hegghammer, Thomas, “Weeping in Modern Jihadi Groups,” Journal of Islamic Studies, September 2020, Vol. 31, Issue 3.

Høigilt, J., & Selvik, K. (2020). Debating terrorism in a political transition: Journalism and democracy in Tunisia. International Communication Gazette, 82(7), 664-681.

Iocchi, A. (2020). The Dangers of Disconnection: Oscillations in Political Violence on Lake Chad. The International Spectator, 55(4), 84-99.

Jupskås, Anders Ravik, Jacob Aasland Ravndal and Tore Bjørgo (2020). How Right-Wing Violence in Western Europe Changed in 2019. Right Now! June 4, 2020.

Jupskås, Anders Ravik; Leidig, Eviane (2020). Knowing what’s (far) right. A compendium. Oslo: C-REX Center for Research on Extremism.

Leidig, Eviane (2020). Hindutva as a variant of right-wing extremism. Patterns of Prejudice; Vol. 54(3) s. 215-237.

Macklin, Graham (co-author, 2020). Counter Extremism Project (CEP), Violent Right-Wing Extremism: Transnational Connectivity, Definitions, Incidents, Structures and Countermeasures (Counter Extremism Project November 2020). Commissioned by the German Federal Foreign Office.

Macklin, Graham (co-author, 2020). DARE (H2020 project), Case Studies of Interactive Radicalisation: United Kingdom (2020)

Macklin, Graham David (2020). Extreme Movements under Extreme Pressure – British Fascists and Uncertainty during World War Two. In: Minority Religions and Uncertainty. Routledge

Macklin, Graham David (2020). Failed Führers: A History of Britain’s Extreme Right. Routledge.

Macklin, Graham David (2020). The internal brakes on violent escalation within the British extreme right in the 1990s. Perspectives on Terrorism 2020 ; Vol. 14.(6) s. 148-161.

Macklin, Graham David; Busher, Joel; Ashe, Stephen D; Winter, Aaron (2020). Researching the Far Right: Theory, Method and Practice. Routledge.

Osland, K. M., & Erstad, H. U. (2020). The Fragility Dilemma and Divergent Security Complexes in the Sahel. The International Spectator, 55(4), 18-36.

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland (2020). The Emergence of Transnational Street Militancy: A Comparative Case Study of the Nordic Resistance Movement and Generation Identity. Journal for Deradicalization (25) s. 1-34

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland, Sofia Lygren, Anders Ravik Jupskås and Tore Bjørgo (2020). RTV Trend Report 2020: Right-Wing Terrorism and Violence in Western Europe, 1990 - 2019. Oslo: Center for Research on Extremism (C-REX).

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland; Jupskås, Anders Ravik (2020). Methods for mapping far right violence. I: Researching the Far Right: Theory, Method and Practice. Routledge 2020

Thorleifsson, Cathrine (2020). Lone actors with shared ideas (chapter). I: Mainstreaming the Global Radical Right: CARR Yearbook 2019/20. Ibidem-Verlag

Stenersen, Anne, book review: “The Making of a Salafi Muslim Woman: Paths to Conversion”, by Anabel Inge, (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2018)”, in Politics, Religion & Ideology, published online: 25 Aug 2020.

Skretting, Vidar “Al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghrib’s Expansion in the Sahara: New Insights from the Primary Sources”, Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, (2020)

Wilhelmsen, J. (2020). Exclusion and Inclusion. Perspectives on Terrorism, 14(2), 27-41.

Wilhelmsen, J., & Youngman, M. (2020). Violent mobilization and non-mobilization in the North Caucasus. Perspectives on Terrorism, 14(2), 2-10.

Other publications:

Macklin, Graham (2020). ‘Coronavirus and the Far Right: Seizing the Moment?’ Instituto per gli Studi di Politica Internazionale/Italian Institute for International Political Studies (ISPI), 15 May 2020.

Casola, C., & Iocchi, A. (2020). The “Faceless Evildoers” of Cabo Delgado: an Islamist Insurgency in Mozambique?. ISPI Commentaries.


C-REX, center for research on extremism:

Articles and reports

Bjørgo, Tore & Jacob Aasland Ravndal (2019). “Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Responses”. ICCT Policy Brief, September 2019. (DOI: 10.19165/2019.1.08)

Bjørgo, Tore & Miroslav Mareš (eds., 2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge. Open Access:

Bjørgo, Tore (2019). “Right-Wing Extremism in Norway: Changes and Challenges”. Right Now!

Busher, Joel, Donald Holbrook, Graham David Macklin (2019). “The Internal Brakes on Violent Escalation: A Typology”. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, volume 11(1), p. 3-25.

Haugstvedt, Håvard (2019). “Trusting the Mistrusted: Norwegian Social Workers’ Strategies in Preventing Radicalization and Violent Extremism”. Journal for Deradicalization, 19, pp. 149-184.

Macklin, Graham (2019). “The Christchurch attacks: Livestream terror in the Viral Video Age”. CTC Sentinel 12 (6), p. 18-29.

Macklin, Graham (2019). “The El Paso Terrorist Attack: The Chain Reaction of Global Right-Wing Terror”. CTC Sentinel 12 (11), p. 1-9.

Macklin, Graham (2019). “The Evolution of Extreme-Right Terrorism and Efforts to Counter it in the United Kingdom”. CTC Sentinel 12(1), p. 15-20.

Macklin, Graham, Joel Busher, Donald Holbrook (2019). “Explaining non- or limited escalation of violence: the role of ‘internal brakes’”. Crest Security Review 2019 (9), p. 22-25.

Macklin, Graham, Joel Busher, Donald Holbrook (2019). "The Internal Brakes on Violent Escalation: A Descriptive Typology".  Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST) 108 p.

Obaidi, Milan, Robin Bergh, Nazar Akrami, & Gulnaz Anjum (2019). “Group-Based Relative Deprivation Explains Endorsement of Extremism Among Western-Born Muslims”. Psychological Science, doi: 10.1177/0956797619834879

Ravndal, Jacob Aasland (2019). “Transnational Militancy in the Making: A Primer on the Nordic Resistance Movement and Generation Identity”. C-REX Working Paper Series, No. 1/2019. URL:

Tahir, Hajra, Jonas R. Kunst, & Sam, David Lackland (2019). “Threat, anti-western hostility and violence among European muslims: The mediating role of acculturation”. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 73, pp. 74- 88. doi: 10.1016/j.ijintrel.2019.08.001


Book chapters

Bjørgo, Tore and Ingvild Magnæs Gjelsvik (2019b). «Sheep in wolf’s clothing? The taming of the Soldiers of Odin in Norway”. Chapter 17 in Bjørgo & Mareš (eds., 2019), Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bjørgo, Tore and Miroslav Mareš (2019b). “Comparative perspectives on vigilantism against migrants and minorities”. Chapter 19 in Bjørgo & Mareš (eds., 2019), Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Gattinara, Pietro Castelli (2019). “Beyond the Hand of the State: Vigilantism Against Migrants and Refugees in France”, in Bjørgo & Mareš (eds., 2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Gattinara, Pietro Castelli (2019). “Forza Nuova and the Security Walks: Squadrismo and Neo-Fascist Vigilantism in Italy”, in: Bjørgo & Mareš (eds., 2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Gjelsvik, Ingvild & Tore Bjørgo (2019). «Politiets forebyggende arbeid mot radikalisering og ekstremisme», i Stian Lid & Geir Heierstad (red.), Forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme. Norske handlemåter i møte med terror. Oslo: Gyldendal.

Mareš, Miroslav and Tore Bjørgo (2019). “Vigilantism against migrants and minorities: Concepts and goals of current research”. Chapter 1 in Bjørgo & Mareš (eds., 2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.


The Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI):

Book chapters

Nesser, Petter, “The International Context of UK Radicalisation Threats,” in (ed.) Anthony Richards, Jihadist Terror New Threats, New Responses (London: Bloomsbury, 2019).

Stenersen, Anne, “Improved terrorist practical learning potentials from internet-based platforms,” in (ed.) Anthony Richards, Jihadist Terror New Threats, New Responses (London: Bloomsbury, 2019).


Hegghammer Thomas, “Skandinavias første jihadister,” Babylon nr. 2 (2018)

Lia, Brynjar, “Muhajirat-fenomenet: Hvordan ble kvinner fra Europa rekruttert til ISIL, og hva var deres rolle i Kalifatet? ”, Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift 36, nr. 2 (2019).

Nesser, Petter og Henrik Gråtrud, “When Conflicts Do Not Overspill: The Case of Jordan,” in Perspectives on Politics, December 2019.

Stenersen, Anne. “Oversettere i jihadismens tjeneste”, Mellom- Tidsskrift for omsett litteratur nr. 1/2019.

Tønnessen, Truls, ed. (2019). Special Issue on Jihadism after the Caliphate. Perspectives on Terrorism 13, no. 1.

Tønnessen, Truls (2019): “The Islamic State after the Caliphate,” Perspectives on Terrorism 13, no. 1.

Other publications

Nesser, Petter, “Military Interventions, Jihadi Networks, and Terrorist Entrepreneurs: How the Islamic State Terror Wave Rose So High in Europe,” CTC Sentinel, March 2019, Vol. 12, Issue 3.

Stenersen, Anne, “Understanding state formation in civil wars. Jihad & Co.: Black Markets and Islamist Power”. By Aisha Ahmad. New York: Oxford University Press, 2017. 336p. £21.99 cloth. Perspectives on Politics, Vol. 17, Issue 2 (2019).

Norwegian Insitute of International Affairs (NUPI):

Articles and reports

Bøås, Morten. "Studying Insurgencies." Interdisciplinary Political Studies 5, no. 1 (2019): 7-22.

Gade, Tine. "Together all the way? Abeyance and co-optation of Sunni networks in Lebanon." Social Movement Studies 18, no. 1 (2019): 56-77.

Gade, Tine. “Islam keeping violent Jihadism at bay in times of Daesh: state religious institutions in Lebanon, Morocco and Saudi Arabia since 2013”. 2019. Research Project Report RSCAS/Middle East Directions;2019/04.

Høigilt, Jacob, and Kjetil Selvik. "Debating terrorism in a political transition: Journalism and democracy in Tunisia." International Communication Gazette (2020): 1748048519897519.

Rupesinghe, Natasja, and Morten Bøås. "Local Drivers of Violent Extremism in Central Mali." (2019). NUPI/UNDP Policy Brief.


The Norwegian Police University College:

Bjørgo, Tore & Jacob Aasland Ravndal (2019). “Extreme-Right Violence and Terrorism: Concepts, Patterns, and Responses”. ICCT Policy Brief, September 2019. (DOI: 10.19165/2019.1.08)

Bjørgo, Tore & Miroslav Mareš (eds., 2019). Vigilantism against Migrants and Minorities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bjørgo, Tore and Ingvild Magnæs Gjelsvik (2019b). “Sheep in wolf’s clothing?: The taming of the Soldiers of Odin in Norway”. Chapter 17 in Bjørgo and Mareš (eds., 2019).

Gjelsvik, Ingvild & Tore Bjørgo (2019). Politiets forebyggende arbeid mot radikalisering og ekstremisme. I: Stian Lid & Geir Heierstad (red.). Forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme. Norske handlemåter i møte med terror. Oslo: Gyldendal.

Gjelsvik, I. M. (2019). Disengaging from violent extremism: the case of Al-Shabaab in Somalia. conflict trends, 2019(1), 12-19.

Gjelsvik, I. M. (2019). Should I stay or should I go? Security considerations for members leaving al-Shabaab in Somalia. NUPI Policy Brief(4).



Practises in Interagency Collaboration against Violent Extremism at the City Level (Panel on "Nordic Multiagency Approaches to Handling Extremism"), with Tore Bjørgo, Nordic Conference on Violent extremism 2019, Aarhus University, 31. October 2019.


Phd. dissertations:

Hemmingby, Cato (2019). «Terrorists and Targets: A Relationship Founded on Bad Intentions, Limited Capacities and Risk Willingness”, phd.-avhandling at the University of Stavanger.

Selected publications from previous years:

Knudsen, Rita Augestad (2018) “Measuring radicalisation: risk assessment conceptualisations and practice in England and Wales”, Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression.

Ravndal, J.A. (2018) "Right-wing Terrorism and Militancy in the Nordic Countries: A Comparative Case Study", Terrorism and Political Violence, 1-21.

Ravndal, J.A. (2017) "Explaining right-wing terrorism and violence in Western Wurope: Grievances, oppurtunities and polarisation", European Journal of Political Research.

Stenersen, Anne (2017) Al-Qaida in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stenersen, Anne (2017) "Thirty Years After its Foundation: Where is Al-Qaida Going?", Perspectives on Terrorism 11:6.

Knudsen, Rita Augestad (2017) "Radicalisation and foreign fighters in the Kosovo context: an analysis of international media coverage of the phenomena", NUPI Working Paper

Hegghammer, Thomas (ed.) (2017) Jihadi Culture: The Art and Social Practices of Militant Islamists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hemmingby, Cato (2017) "Exploring the continuum of lethality: Militant islamists' targeting preferences in Europe", Perspectives on Terrorism 11:5.

Hegghammer, Thomas & Andreas Dæhli (2017) "Insiders and Outsiders: A Survey of Terrorist Threats to Nuclear Facilities" in Bunn & Sagan (eds.), Insider Threats (Cornell University Press)

Strazzari, Francesco (2017) “Organised crime in fragile states: Africa’s variations” (with L. Raineri), EUISS Brief n. 8.

Wolff, Elisabetta C. (2016) 'Evola's interpretation of fascism and moral responsibility', Patterns of Prejudice 50(4-5), pp 478- 494.

Hegghammer, Thomas (2016) 'The Future of Jihadism in Europe: A Pessimistic View', Perspectives on Terrorism 10:6.

Nesser, P., Anne Stenersen & Emilie Oftedal (2016). 'Jihadi terrorism in Europe: The IS Effect', Perspectives on terrorism 10:6.

Hemmingby, Cato. & Tore Bjørgo (2016). The dynamics of a terror targeting process: Anders B. Breivik and the 22 July Attacks in Norway. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Ravndal, J. A. (2016). 'Right-wing terrorism and violence in Western Europe: Introducing the RTV Dataset', Perspectives on terrorism 10:3.

Strazzari, Francesco (2015) "Foreign Fighters as a Challenge for International Relations Theory," in A. de Guttry, F. Capone and C. Paulussen (eds.), Foreign Fighters under International Law and Beyond, ASSER/Springer Verlag, pp. 49-62. 

Strazzari, Francesco (2015) “State, Secession and Jihad: The Micro-polical Economy of Conflict in North Mali (with L. Raineri), African Security, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 249-271.

Bjørgo, T., & Ingvild M. Gjelsvik (2015). Forskning på forebygging av radikalisering og voldelig ekstremisme: En kunnskapsstatus.