Skip to content
NUPI skole

Bård Drange

Former employee

Contactinfo and files

Summary

Aktivitet

Articles
News
Articles
News

EUNPACK Final Conference: synthesising three years of research on the EU’s crisis response

Conflict sensitivity in focus as the three-year NUPI-led research project on the EU’s crisis response (EUNPACK) organised a final conference in Brussels in March.

  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Humanitarian issues
  • Conflict
  • Migration
  • International organizations
  • The EU
Articles
New research
Articles
New research

Five paradoxes EU must address to effectively respond to crises beyond its borders

Engaging in ongoing conflicts brings with it a set of extraordinary challenges.

  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • The EU
News
News

Transboundary collaboration on conservation and natural resources in East Africa

How can transboundary collaboration on conservation and the management of natural resources transform a zone of war into more peaceful coexistence? The case of Uganda-Rwanda-DR Congo holds some promise.

  • Development policy
  • Africa
  • Conflict
The image shows a baby and a mother mountain gorilla
Event
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
Engelsk
Event
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
Engelsk
12. Dec 2018
Event
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
Engelsk

Fragility, conflict and climate change in Mali and Sahel

The combined effects of fragile states, conflict, and climate change pose severe challenges to development and governance. What does this mean for Mali and the larger Sahel region?

Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Kvifor forhandle fred? Ein analyse av forhandlingsstart i den væpna konflikten i Colombia

(Article available in Norwegian only): The conflict in Colombia has seemed insolvable for decades. Despite several peace attempts, it has always flared up again. In this article, I explain the onset of peace negotiations in 2012 between the Government of Colombia and the FARC, the largest guerrilla group in the country. I claim the fundamental explanation for why they initiated negotiations was the military weakening of the FARC in the 2000s, which led the guerrilla group to appreciate the necessity of ending the conflict through negotiation in order to reach at least some of their goals. The second most important factor was the change in leadership in Colombia, where in 2010 the newly-elected president, Juan Manuel Santos, considered a political solution possible and more attractive than his predecessor did, and took pragmatic measures to create a sustainable process. In addition, third parties contributed to safe and secret proceedings and to trust in the peace process. Negotiations begun in 2012 are – through a structured, focused comparison – compared with the peace dialogue in Caguán (1999-2002) between the same actors, where negotiation did not start. Case studies like this one can help us understand dynamics behind the choices of armed actors to pursue political solutions to armed conflicts. The onset of negotiation, which I analyze, must not be equated with a peace agreement or the end of the conflict. It can, however, provide important answers about where armed actors’ motivation to end conflicts come from, and under what conditions this motivation can bring the parties to the negotiating table.

  • Diplomacy
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
  • Governance
  • Diplomacy
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
  • Governance
Publications
Publications
Report

Colombia between peace and war : The 2018 presidential elections and the way forward

The presidential elections of 2018 are expected to have significant implications for the matter of peace, justice and conflict resolution in Colombia. Since conflict intensity rose considerably in the 1980s, presidential elections have been greatly influenced by the candidates’ approaches to the conflict and how to deal with illegal armed groups, particularly the FARC. What visions of peace do the 2018 presidential candidates have, and what could the implications be for the current peace agreement with the FARC? The candidates, rightwing and frontrunner Iván Duque and left-wing candidate Gustavo Petro, promote dissimilar visions of peace for Colombia. These reflect a deeper political polarization within the country, a key issue the next president will have to deal with.

  • Diplomacy
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
  • Governance
  • Diplomacy
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
  • Governance
Publications
Publications
Report

Working paper on implementation of EU crisis response in Mali

This paper offers a critical review of the EUTM and EUCAP in Mali, arguing that this is another example of international interventions that may be well-intended, but that end up producing very mixed results on the ground. One reason for this is the gaps between intentions and implementation and between implementation and local reception/perceptions. Whereas the first gap points to mismatches between EU policy intentions and what effect the implementation of these policies actually have (see for example Hill 1993), the latter gap reveals the inability of an international actor to both understand how key concepts such as ‘security sector reform’ and ‘border management’ are understood on the ground as well as translating its own policies and Brussels’ developed mandate into policies that makes sense for people on the ground (Cissé, Bøås, Kvamme and Dakouo 2017).

  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Conflict
  • The EU
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Conflict
  • The EU
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

The potential and limits of peace agreements: Colombia and Mali

In most cases, political solutions to armed conflicts are professed by a plethora of local, regional and international actors. In practice, however, durable political solutions – typically symbolised through peace agreements – are scarce. While peace agreements may be signed, political willingness, as well as the ability to implement them, is often in short supply. Hence, many peace agreements remain words on paper, not actions in the field. This is also the case in Africa, where many conflict areas see peace agreements being signed, violated and forgotten. This article examines the 2015 peace agreement in Mali and the case of the 2016 peace agreement in Colombia. The 2015 Bamako Agreement for Mali – despite hopes to end armed violence and provide a framework for peace – has had little impact on the ground and serves to illustrate some of the limitations of peace agreements. Does the commonly considered successful case of Colombia shed light on the struggling Malian peace process? This article suggests that the Colombian peace process does provide useful insights into the challenges in Mali. This is discussed in the context of what, with whom and when to negotiate. Following this analysis, some lessons learnt are identified, along with concluding remarks on how these two cases illustrate both the potential and limits of peace agreements.

  • Diplomacy
  • Africa
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
  • Diplomacy
  • Africa
  • South and Central America
  • Conflict
Publications
Publications
Report

Researching the Effectiveness of Peace Operations, Seminar Report, 31 May – 1 June, Oslo

The African Union (AU), European Union (EU), and United Nations (UN) are under increasing pressure to justify the effectiveness of the peace operations they deploy. Justifying this effectiveness requires precise assessments based on systematized and evidence-based data. Per now, however, this data is lacking, a gap the global research community could help address. On 31 May and 1 June 2017, the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) hosted a seminar that brought together thirty participants from the AU, UN, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, as well as research institutes and think tanks from across the globe. The aim of the seminar was to share insights on how best to research the effectiveness of peace operations and to explore the establishment of a network that could seek to address this gap. The seminar discussed how to research and measure the effectiveness of peace operations. It looked at current definitions and conceptualizations of effectiveness, and it discussed the varying perceptions stakeholders have of the effectiveness of peace operations. The group also explored the options for establishing a network dedicated to research on the effectiveness of peace operations. The seminar agreed on the value of establishing such a network, with an aim to produce knowledge that is both academically valuable and relevant for policymakers. Hence, it considered different organizational modalities for a potential research network, with regards to governing principles, funding, and how researchers could undertake joint research projects. This report summarizes the key conclusions and recommendations from the seminar, and lists what the next steps may be for the establishment of a research network on the effectiveness of peace operations.

  • Peace operations
  • United Nations
  • Peace operations
  • United Nations
Research Project
2015 - 2019 (Completed)

Good intentions, mixed results – A conflict sensitive unpacking of the EU comprehensive approach to conflict and crisis mechanisms (EUNPACK)

The EUNPACK project unpacks EU crisis response mechanisms, with the aim to increase their conflict sensitivity and efficiency....

  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Conflict
  • The EU
  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Conflict
  • The EU