Yemen is facing one of the worst humanitarian crises in the world due to a combination of prolonged conflict, economic crisis and recurrent climate change-related natural hazards. These hazards include temperature increases, rising sea levels and changing patterns in rainfall, causing floods, droughts, reduced water availability and soil degradation. Climate change exacerbates vulnerabilities, threatens livelihoods and influences existing conflicts.
- Extreme weather events have destroyed irrigation facilities and led to the loss of agricultural livelihoods in Yemen, thereby increasing food and livelihood insecurity.
- Protracted conflict, climate-related disasters and acute water shortages have exacerbated forced migration and displacement in the country.
- As climate change puts additional pressure on water and land resources, local armed actors may adapt their tactics accordingly and target critical environmental infrastructure and natural resources for their gain.
- Informal and local resolution mechanisms play an important role
in preventing conflict over land and water in Yemen, but they have been slowly degraded by a centralized patronage network and armed conflict. In the absence of strong environmental governance and early-warning systems, climate-related extreme weather events are likely to lead to increased natural resource disputes.
Yemen is in the midst of a protracted political, humanitarian and developmental crisis, including a prolonged armed conflict characterized by competition over state control between the internationally recognized Yemeni government, headed by the Presidential Leadership Council and supported by the Saudi Arabian-led coalition, and the Houthi movement with links to Iran. From April to October 2022, a United Nations- brokered truce resulted in a significant reduction in violence. While the truce formally expired in October, most of its elements continue to hold. In parallel, Oman has facilitated negotiations between Saudi Arabia and the Houthis, increasing expectations of progress towards ending the conflict. The conflict has led to the destruction of key infrastructure and disrupted the provision of already limited social services. The international community should increase its support for addressing food insecurity, water challenges, and lack of access to healthcare and other basic social services, while also emphasizing long-term, climate-resilient and sustainable development in Yemen.
- Addressing climate change and security in the Security Council
- Climate change and risk
- Climate-related Peace and Security Risks (CPSR)
More fact sheets in this series:
- SOMALIA FACT SHEET LINK
- MALI FACT SHEET LINK
- SAHEL FACT SHEET LINK
- AFGHANISTAN FACT SHEET LINK
- SOUTH SUDAN FACT SHEET LINK (UPDATED VERSION)
- IRAQ FACT SHEET LINK
- SUDAN FACT SHEET LINK
- COLOMBIA FACT SHEET LINK
- CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC FACT SHEET LINK
- SOMALIA FACT SHEET LINK (UPDATED VERSION)
- AFGHANISTAN FACT SHEET LINK (UPDATED VERSION)
- IRAQ FACT SHEET LINK (UPDATED VERSION)