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Europe

Europe is changing – faced with financial crises, conflicts in its neighbourhood, war in Ukraine and power shifts on the international scene.

The EU is the dominant theme of NUPI’s research on Europe. Increased cooperation and the development of common institutions in Europe, EU foreign and defence policy, EU policy towards neighbouring states and adjacent regions, as well as the role of NATO in Europe are all important areas of study. Also central are questions of energy production in Europe and European energy security. Further priority areas for research at NUPI are the special position of Europe in Norwegian foreign policy, and the role of Europe in global geopolitics.
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

The defence of northern Europe: new opportunities, significant challenges

With Finland and Sweden joining NATO, the Nordics will be united for the first time in a military alliance encompassing not only northern Europe but also the broader transatlantic region. It will eventually fortify northern European security, but several obstacles must be overcome first. NATO has done a formidable job since 2014 in updating its defence plans, cumulating in the Deterrence and Defence of the Euro-Atlantic Area (DDA) family of plans approved in Vilnius 2023. Now Finland and Sweden need to be incorporated into these plans. A more challenging task is to implement NATO's New Force Model which is tremendously ambitious. Finland and Sweden's contributions will be important, but new investments must be made. NATO's Command Structure is yet to be fully reformed and fitted to the DDA. Joint Force Command Norfolk must urgently be staffed, without undue politicization in NATO. Nordic defence buildup can draw on regional cooperation in particular in five areas: in strengthening the area's command design through functional double-hatted headquarters; developing close air power cooperation through e.g. a Combined Joint Air Operations Centre; strengthening total defence cooperation across borders and expanding logistical infrastructure; establishing joint intelligence task forces; and joint training and exercises. The contributions of the United States and United Kingdom are indispensable when it comes to upholding the alliance's guarantee in northern Europe. The recent signing of Defense Cooperation Agreements between the US and the Nordics reinforces this—together with an increased presence of air and naval assets in the region. The same applies to the UK and the Joint Expeditionary Force which now has shifted its focus towards northern Europe. This engagement is a crucial addition to Nordic and NATO plans and activities in a period when growth in Nordic defence structures is occurring at a relatively slow pace. Only after the weaknesses and hurdles are addressed will the deterrence and defence of the region attain a fully credible level.

  • Defence
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • North America
  • The Nordic countries
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  • Defence
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • North America
  • The Nordic countries
Media
Media
Media

BRICS - en allianse mot verden

BRICS utvidast. Russland overtar samstundes leiarskapen i organisasjonen som utfordrar Vesten. Kva kan skje? NUPI-forskar Julie Wilhelmsen er ein av deltakarane i denne samtala i NRK-programmet Debatt i P2.

  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • South and Central America
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  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • South and Central America
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Russian-speakers in Estonia: A Minority Without Agency

This article explores the conditions of the Russian-speaking minority in Estonia and sees the development of these conditions as a product of an interaction between the nationalizing state, the Russian-speaking minority, the minority’s “kin state”, and the international community; a framework dubbed the “quadratic nexus” by David J. Smith, expanding upon the theories of Rogers Brubaker. This article provides an updated empirical analysis of the impact of the quadratic dynamic in Estonian minority relations, as the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine has shifted the balance of power between the agents in Smith’s nexus. The result of this shift is that the conditions of the Russian-speaking minority are now almost entirely decided by the nationalizing state, influenced by Russian aggression. The Russian Federation has made the protection of minority rights in Estonia increasingly difficult by pressuring the Estonian political elite to take an even more conservative stance on nationality policies as a response to the perceived threat from their neighbor in the east, in addition to reinforcing international indifference to minority rights in Estonia. This, combined with the preexisting socio-economic conditions of the Russian-speaking minority has led to the near total loss of the minority’s agency. The article is in Norwegian only.

  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
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  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
Publications
Publications
Policy brief

Deterrence and (Re)assurance in the High North – Finland and Norway Compared

- Finland and Norway are both frontline states to Russia with a similar deterrence and defense strategy. - Finland’s geopolitical position as a frontline state is mainly defined by the long land border to Russia. Norway is predominantly a maritime frontline state. - Norway is both a frontline state and a rear area for staging support to military operations in the Nordic Region. - Geography is a factor influencing the different approaches in Finland and Norway to foreign military activity near Russia. Also, proximity to nuclear forces and test areas.

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Nordic countries
  • Conflict
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  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Nordic countries
  • Conflict
The next migration crisis: Is the EU better prepared?
Podcast

The next migration crisis: Is the EU better prepared?

In this podcast episode we take a closer look on how the EU will handle a new migration crisis. A new wave of mass migration to Europe might be bu...

  • Europe
  • Migration
  • Governance
  • Europe
  • Migration
  • Governance
NUPIpodden #2: Valg i Storbritannia - går May på en valgsmell?
Podcast

NUPIpodden #2: Valg i Storbritannia - går May på en valgsmell?

I morgen går britene til valgurnene for å avgjøre hvem som skal lede Storbritannia gjennom Brexit. NUPI-forsker Kristin Haugevik gir deg det du tr...

  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Governance
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Governance
Articles
New research
Articles
New research

Hvor mye hjelp kan Norge få i krig?

Vi kan ikke lenger lene oss på at NATO-stormaktene skal redde oss i en krigssituasjon, ifølge en ny NUPI-rapport av Ståle Ulriksen.
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • The Nordic countries
Publications
Publications
Policy brief

Utenrikspolitikkens mål er å gjøre innenrikspolitikken mulig

This policy brief is in Norwegian only.

  • International economics
  • Economic growth
  • International investments
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Asia
  • Conflict
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  • International economics
  • Economic growth
  • International investments
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Asia
  • Conflict
Media
Media
Media

Climate and Russia - Does the world need nuclear power?

The rising global temperature must be restricted to well below a two-degree increase. It’s crucial to make electricity production carbon neutral as quickly as possible. Is nuclear power the new game changer for achieving this ambitious goal? In this documentary from DW, NUPI Research Professor Kacper Szulecki is interviewed about nuclear energy.

  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • North America
  • Energy
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  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • North America
  • Energy
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Emigrant external voting in Central-Eastern Europe after EU enlargement

The European Union's Eastern Enlargement of 2004–2007 triggered a large wave of migration. While the influence of Central-Eastern European (CEE) migrants on Western European politics has been studied, the impact of outward migration and political remittances “sent” by expatriates remain unexplored, despite the salience of democratic backsliding and populist politics in the region. We ask how external voting among migrants differs from electoral results in homelands over time, drawing on an original dataset gathering voting results among migrants from six CEE countries in fifteen Western European host countries. Using models estimated with Bayesian ordinary least squares regression, we test three hypotheses: two related to the disparity of diaspora votes from homeland party systems over time; and one to the ideological leanings of diasporas. We observe a growing discrepancy and note that diaspora votes follow the ideological fluctuations in the country of origin but distort it, with CEE migrants voting for more liberal and more economically right-wing parties than voters ‘at home’.

  • Europe
  • Migration
  • The EU
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  • Europe
  • Migration
  • The EU
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