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Policy brief


Solving Europe’s Defense Dilemma: Overcoming the Challenges to European Defense Cooperation

Written by

Sean Monaghan
Visiting Fellow, CSIS


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Russia’s war of aggression in Ukraine has led to a transformational moment for European defense. However, Europe has a dilemma: it is spending more on defense but cooperating less—all despite three decades of political initiatives designed to improve European defense cooperation.
  • Published year: 2023
  • Publisher: CSIS
  • Page count: 22
  • Language: English


  • Defence
  • NATO
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The EU

Written by

Sean Monaghan
Visiting Fellow, CSIS
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Research project