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NUPI skole

Europa

Europa er i endring. Økonomiske krisetider, konflikter i regionens grenseområder, krig i Ukraina, og forskyvning av makt på den globale politiske arenaen preger verdensdelen.

EU dominerer som tema for NUPIs forskning om Europa. Økt samarbeid og utvikling av felles institusjoner i Europa, EUs utenriks- og forsvarspolitikk, NATOs rolle i Europa og EUs politikk overfor nabostater og tilgrensende regioner er viktige temaer. I tillegg står spørsmål om energiproduksjon i Europa og europeisk energisikkerhet sentralt. Europas særstilling i norsk utenrikspolitikk og verdensdelens rolle i den globale geopolitikken er også prioriterte områder for NUPI.
Hvor hender det?
Hvilke sentrale dilemmaer står Storbritannia overfor i utenrikspolitikken?
  • Europe
  • North America
  • Governance
Hvor hender det?
Hvorfor synes de politiske motsetningene å være større i Belgia enn i andre vestlige land?
  • Europe
  • Governance
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

European Identity and Its Changing Others

Taking its clue from Finnish experiences with identity politics, this lecture introduces the concept of collective identity. Collective identity is about forging an acting ‘we’. It constitutes the polis, and is therefore basic to any politics. Constituting the polis is a relational act: the group in question constitutes itself by drawing up and maintaining boundaries towards other groups. Drawing on these insights, the bulk of the lecture discusses European identity in term of Europe’s relations to some of its constituting others. Pointing to the importance of not sealing itself off from its Muslim citizens and neighbours, the lecture ends with a plea for Turkish EU membership.

  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Europa
Hvor hender det?
Hvordan er vi europeere sett med amerikanske øyne?
  • Europe
  • North America
Hvor hender det?
Hvordan er vi europeere sett med amerikanske øyne?
  • Europe
  • North America
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

From Common Defence to Comprehensive Security Towards the Europeanisation of French Foreign and Security Policy?

This article looks at the relationship between European integration and national foreign and security policy - specifically, how and to what extent the development of a specifically European (EU) foreign and security policy leads to adaptation and change in national foreign and security policy. The theoretical point of departure is an interest in national changes in response to EU norms. It will be argued that national approaches tend to adapt to norms defined by a community to which they are closely linked; that this adaptation takes place over time, through a socialisation process; and that it may also, in the end, lead to changes in national identity. This argument challenges the common assumption of IR theory that national identities and/or interests are fixed and independent of structural factors like international norms and values. The empirical focus is on changes in French foreign and security policy since the early 1990s. How and to what extent has the dominant French national discourse on foreign and security policy changed since the early 1990s? And if so, how are these changes related to the European integration process in general, and to the development of a European foreign and security dimension in particular?

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

French foreign policy and the limits of Europeanisation : The changing French position on EU enlargement

This article focuses on the changing French position on EU enlargement. The aim of the analysis is to study the interplay between the foreign policy of the EU and the foreign policy of France, but also between the official French foreign policy and the French public opinion. Most of the literature on EU enlargement underestimates the importance of public opinion. This article is therefore an attempt to present a more comprehensive understanding of the changing French position on enlargement by combining a top down with a bottom up approach. By doing this the analysis do not consider whether enlargement is good or bad, but rather how a member state’s position on this issue may change both through a process of Europeanisation and as a result of changes in domestic public opinion.

  • Regional integrasjon
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • EU
  • Regional integrasjon
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Strategic Adaption or Identity Change? : An analysis of Britain's Approach to the ESDP 1998-2004

In this working paper, Kristin Marie Haugevik seeks to analyse the nature of the changes in Britain’s approach to the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) after 1998. Ever since the beginning of the European integration process in 1951, Britain’s approach to European security and defence cooperation has been characterized by anti-federalism and transatlanticism. Hence, it was unexpected when Tony Blair, together with Jacques Chirac, took the initiative to frame a common security and defence policy for the EU in Saint Malo in 1998. This paper discusses to what extent Britain’s new approach to the ESDP after 1998 can be explained as the result of a strategic adaptation, and to what extent it can be seen as a result of more profound changes in the British identity and security interests. These two accounts are tested by analysing Britain’s approach to some of the most important ESDP documents since 1998: the Saint Malo declaration, the Laeken declaration, the Nice Treaty, the European Security Strategy, and the Constitution Treaty

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Tackling Welfare Gaps: The East European Transition and New Patterns of Migration to Norway

The main purpose of the study is to analyse how the growing welfare gaps between Eastern and Western Europe have become a securitised issue that needs to be addressed by national, international and supranational bodies. The very existence of welfare gaps is an important migratory push-factor. This study will examine how the economic and social transition in Eastern Europe – first of all in Russia and Poland, but also in the rest of what used to be defined as Eastern Bloc1 – has contributed to the emergence of a new set of push and pull factors in the region, and as a direct result, to new patterns of emigration. The next step will be to see how these emerging migratory patterns have influenced migration trends in Norway. As Norway is often represented as the wealthiest country in Europe and a country that has successfully pursued what is often in the Central and Eastern European discourse described as ‘the third way’ of development: a country that, thanks to its revenues from oil, has managed to build a capitalism with a human face, Norway has become both a potential and actual country of migration to many of the citizens from the former Communist Bloc. Thus, this study maps both the ‘push factors’ in the area of actual and potential emigration in Eastern and Central Europe, as well as the most important ‘pull factors’ in the areas of actual and potential migration, with a focus on Central/Eastern Europe on the one hand, and Norway on the other. In this context we will look at various institutional and non-institutional strategies of eliminating the welfare gaps perceived as a major cause of migration. As migration is increasingly becoming a securitised issue, I will treat the ‘welfare gap/migration issue’ as a part of a new post-Cold War European security equation.

  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Europa
  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Europa
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

The State, the People and the Armed Forces – a Genealogical Outline of the Legitimacy of the Armed Forces in Norway

The Norwegian armed forces in the early 21st century is in a phase of rapid change and transition. International missions are about to become its main task, whereas traditional domestic territorial defence is becoming less and less relevant. Is this transition purely a technical adjustment to a new security environment, or does it also entail more fundamental changes in the relationship between the armed forces, the state and the population? Could the military risk to lose its popular legitimacy? To grasp the current changes, it is important to understand the foundations of the relationship between the military, the state and the people. As well as how these relations have evolved over time. This is certainly not the first time in history the armed forces are facing fundamental changes. This article seeks to shed light on some of these developments in Norway over the last centuries. The evolvement of the conscript system will be used to illustrate some of these developments. I will argue that the Norwegian authorities to date have been reluctant in addressing the changes, applying what can be described as ‘yesterday’s explanations’ when legitimising military operations of today. If this trend of ignorance continues, the danger of a popular back-lash increases.

  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
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