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Center

NUPI's Research Centre on New Technology

Themes

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Cyber
  • International economics
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Peace operations
  • Governance
  • International organizations

Coordinator

Niels Nagelhus Schia
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Research group on security and defense, Head of NUPI's Research Centere on New Technology

Events

9. May. 2023
08:00 - 09:30
NUPI
English
Cyber defence and the EU’s cyber posture
7. Apr. 2021
14:00 - 16:00
Microsoft Teams
English
The weakest link? Digital technology and cyber security capacity building in Developing Countries
17. Nov. 2020
14:00 - 15:00
Microsoft Teams
English
Naming and shaming of cyber intruders – does it work?
9. Jun. 2020
14:00 - 15:30
Webinar
English
WEBINAR: Security implications of AI and other emerging technologies
6. Oct. 2019
14:00 - 15:30
NUPI
English
The U.S. National Cyber Strategy and 5G
31. Oct. 2019
11:00 - 12:30
NUPI
English
Theory Seminar: Cyber Conflict in the study of International Relations
31. Oct. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
The U.S. Cyber Strategy of Persistent Engagement
2. Jun. 2019
12:00 - 13:30
NUPI
English
Lunch seminar: Peace, war and alliances in cyberspace
2. May. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Breakfast seminar: Cyber threats and what to do about them?
5. Feb. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Chinese cyber security and consequences for Europe
26. Aug. 2018
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Cyber security and the protection of critical infrastructure – an American perspective
24. Apr. 2018
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
The International Cyber Diplomacy Agenda
15. Jan. 2018
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
Cyber Intelligence and Nordic Security
7. Dec. 2017
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
English
Global governance of cyberspace - opportunities and challenges
9. Oct. 2017
12:30 - 14:00
NUPI
English
Facing new threats: The US cyber security strategy
15. Oct. 2017
12:15 - 13:15
NUPI
English
Estonia's president on security in the Baltic Sea region
17. Aug. 2017
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
Cyber as a strategic dimension in National Security - The Israeli perspective
22. Mar. 2017
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
English
The Internet of Things – how do we govern it?
3. May. 2018
13:15 - 15:00
NUPI
English
Theory Seminar: The Territorialization of Cybersecurity
27. Jan. 2016
10:00 - 12:00
NUPI
English
Launch of the World Bank Development Report 2016
6. Apr. 2015
NUPI
Norwegian
Cybersikkerhet i internasjonale fora: Hvem skal delta?
24. Nov. 2014
12:30 - 14:30
NUPI
Security and liberty in cyberspace. Countermeasures and dilemmas in securing a global free cyberspace
24. Nov. 2014
09:30 - 11:30
NUPI
Theory Seminar: Theorizing cybersecurity
22. Mar. 2017
13:15 - 15:00
NUPI
English
Theory seminar: Attribution and international society in cyber security

Through NUPI's Research Centre on New Technology we seek to bridge the gap between the technical community and the policy world with research focusing primarily on the political dimension of cybersecurity. With a focus on the role of cybersecurity in international relations we track new developments in cybersecurity, and provide academic studies, expert analysis and strategic policy recommendations. The research focus includes theories of cybersecurity, global governance of cyberspace, capacity building, development, and the security vs. freedom dilemma.

We seek to enhance the understanding of today’s increased dependency on a functional cyberspace and what this entails in terms of vulnerabilities, crime and conflict. We have several ongoing and finished projects that address these issues. The goal of the GAIA project (funded by the Research Council of Norway's IKTPLUSS initiative) is to increase the knowledge on digital value chains and what challenges they bring, to draw links between digital value chains, national autonomy and international politics. This is a four-year cooperation between SimulaMet, NUPI and several other institutions and organizations. Protecting Democracies from Digital Threats looks at novel ways of subverting democratic processes through digital means, and different approaches to mitigate this threat. 

Of our finished projects Digital Attacks Against the Norwegian Petroleum Sector explored the digital threats towards the petroleum sector and how to respond to them, while the recently finished Upholding the NATO Cyber Pledge examined if and how deterrence works in the cyber domain. Another area of focus is on International governance and regulation, with particular emphasis on the private sector and the dependence on them to providing cyber security nationally and internationally. Cybersecurity and Developing Countries aimed to systematically explore cybersecurity risks and assess cyber capacity building in developing countries. The aim was to provide a critical analysis of how to actually accomplish cyber capacity building in practice. Read the article The Cyber Frontier and Digital Pitfalls in the Global South published in Third World Quarterly (2018). Critical Digital Infrastructures examined how states approach the issue of public-private cooperation and transnational dependencies for their critical infrastructures, 

Through our extensive international and national network within cybersecurity we work with a wide range of global partners such as the Global Forum of Cyber Expertise, and the Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre at the University of Oxford, as well as with governments, military, international organizations, and the private sector. NUPI organizes several seminars and events aimed at enhancing public awareness and knowledge of the various challenges associated with cyber security in Norway as well as internationally.

The Research Centre is coordinated by Niels Nagelhus Schia and Lars Gjesvik.

Our researchers on cyber security are Niels Nagelhus Schia, Lars GjesvikKarsten Friis, Claudia Aanonsen, Erik Reichborn-KjennerudEskil Jakobsen and Ida Faldbakken.

Through our extensive international and national network within cybersecurity we work with a wide range of global partners such as the Global Forum of Cyber Expertise, and the Global Cyber Security Capacity Centre at the University of Oxford, as well as with governments, military, international organizations, and the private sector. NUPI is a member of the Cybil portal on cyber capacity building and organizes several seminars and events aimed at enhancing public awareness and knowledge of the various challenges associated with cyber security in Norway as well as internationally.

Articles

Articles
News
Articles
News

PODCAST: Guardians of the Algorithm

The World Stage looks closer on the need for global oversight of artificial intelligence with Dr. Rumman Chowdhury.
  • Cyber
  • International organizations
Articles
News
Articles
News

PODCAST: AI and geopolitics

“Every tool can become a weapon,” notes Vice Chair and President of Microsoft. “It will take not just responsible companies, but law and regulation to manage this properly.”
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • Global governance
Articles
News
Articles
News

C-suite strategies for responsible AI

Microsoft and NBIM executives visited NUPI to deliberate on the geopolitics of artificial intelligence.
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Globalisation
  • Diplomacy
  • Global governance
Articles
News
Articles
News

NUPI replaces NRK P2's 'Ekko' this week

NUPI has produced ten hours of high quality radio about foreign policy and international relations. The programs will air on NRK P2 during week 50, Monday to Friday from 9.00 to 11.00. Tune in!

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Cyber
  • Intelligence
  • International economics
  • Economic growth
  • Trade
  • International investments
  • Globalisation
  • Regional integration
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • North America
  • South and Central America
  • Peace operations
  • Humanitarian issues
  • Conflict
  • Fragile states
  • Migration
  • Nationalism
  • Insurgencies
  • Pandemics
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Oceans
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • United Nations
Articles
News
Articles
News

Podcast: Can blockchain save journalism?

The underlying technology behind bitcoin may help fight fake news, says Walid Al-Saqaf.

  • Cyber
Articles
News
Articles
News

Podcast: Giving Chinese tech giants access to Europe - what are the consequences?

Are we ready for the implications of giving Chinese tech giant access to European markets?

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Asia
News
News

Prestigious project to NUPI on digitalization and the modern world order

New project to investigate vulnerabilities on the Internet and political consequences.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
News
News

Cyberattacks: How to protect critical infrastructure?

Michael Chertoff, former United States Secretary of Homeland Security, shares his insights on cybersecurity in a new NUPI podcast episode.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Europe
  • North America
  • Conflict
Bildet viser Michael Chertoff
News
News

PODCAST: Cyberspace, international norms, and a new initiative in the UN?

In this NUPI podcast, cyber-expert Karsten Geier proposes a new way forward.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Bildet illustrerer cyberspace
News
News

PODCAST: How to govern cyberspace?

Marina Kaljurand shares five lessons from the aftermath of the 2007 cyber attacks on Estonia.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
Marina Kaljurand besøkte NUPI i desember
News
News

President of Estonia on cyber security

What does Estonia see as the most pressing challenges to the global stability of cyber space?

  • Security policy
  • Cyber

Upholding the NATO cyber pledge

Cyber Deterrence and Resilience: Dilemmas in NATO defence and security politics.

  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
News
News

An unsecure web of things

How do you know if your new TV with an integrated camera is secure?

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Governance
Bildet viser Madeline Carr
News
News

The cyber-frontier

How does digitalization lead to new kinds of global connections and disconnections in the developing countries? And which role does digitalization play for the UN's sustainable development goals? NUPI researchers set out to explore this in a new research project that maps cybersecurity in the Global South.

  • Security policy
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Bildet illustrerer cyberspace
News
News

Conflict in Cyber Space

The rapid digitalization of today’s societies means that we are increasingly dependent upon a functional and stable cyber space.

  • Security policy
Seniorrådgiver Karsten Friis, forsker Erik Reichborn-Kjennerud og juniorforsker Lilly Pijnenburg Muller.

New publications

Publications
Publications

Internet governance and the UN in a multiplex world order era?

Over the last two decades Internet Governance (IG) has emerged as an increasingly complex and fraught field of policymaking involving both states and non-state actors on a multitude of arenas. Facing this complex field, the role of the United Nations (UN) in IG has been both varying and contested. While the UN has been discussing issues related to IG since the 1990s, disagreements on both substantive issues and where discussions ought to take place have intermittently resurfaced and remained relevant, but recent processes and challenges to the status quo asks questions about the direction going forward. In the UN, recently established processes aims to revamp the approach to IG, while the negotiations over a cybercrime convention, and the 2022 ITU plenipotentiary have made the long running contests between western and authoritarian states over this topic more visible. Broader trends and rising tensions globally raises questions not only about the future for the global nature of IG and the role of the UN in this, but also whether decoupling and alliances with like-minded states might become more dominant than global multilateral and multi-stakeholder channels, i.e a trend pointing towards a multiplex field of internet governance.1

Screenshot 2023-04-18 at 13.14.54.png
Publications
Publications
Op-ed

Hva er det vi egentlig løser ved å slette TikTok?

Hvilke apper må Nasjonal sikkerhetsmyndighet vurdere i neste runde?

  • Cyber
Screenshot 2023-05-04 at 11.35.16.png
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Policy brief

The subsea cable cut at Svalbard January 2022: What happened, what were the consequences, and how were they managed?

Svalbard is, like most other societies, largely dependent on an internet connection. The fiber connection on Svalbard consists of two separate subsea cables that connect Longyearbyen to the mainland. In some areas the cables were buried about two meters below the seabed, especially in areas where fishing is done, to “protect against destruction of the fishing fleet’s bottom trawling or anchoring of ships. (New version uploaded 18 January 2023)

  • The Nordic countries
  • Energy
  • Oceans
Screenshot 2023-01-18 at 14.27.16.png
  • The Nordic countries
  • Energy
  • Oceans
Publications
Publications
Policy brief

Loss of Tonga’s telecommunication – what happened, how was it managed and what were the consequences?

In January 2022 the subsea volcano Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai in Tonga had a major eruption which also cut the country’s communication lines nationally, between Tonga’s inhabited islands and the outside world. The damage led to a complete halt in international communication (a “digital darkness”) which meant that, in the period immediately after the outbreak, not much was known about the extent of the damage in Tonga. Due to very limited access to contact with both the authorities and the population of Tonga, it was only during overflights carried out by the Australian and New Zealand air forces that one could begin to map the extent of the damage and the need for assistance.

  • Oceania
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Oceans
Screenshot 2023-01-23 at 13.58.00.png
  • Oceania
  • Climate
  • Energy
  • Oceans
Publications
Publications

Interpreting cyber-energy-security events: experts, social imaginaries, and policy discourses around the 2016 Ukraine blackout

We analyse the expert debate around a cyber attack in 2016 that caused an electric power blackout in Ukraine. Two expert reports were crucial for interpreting this event, and there are several competing narratives of cybersecurity where the event plays different roles. We show that the most securitized narratives became more prominent and point to the power wielded by private companies and experts in this field.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Europe
  • Energy
Screenshot 2022-08-22 at 14.26.35.png
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Europe
  • Energy
Publications
Publications

Private infrastructure in weaponized interdependence

The ability of states to exploit private resources at an international level is an increasingly salient political issue. In explaining the mechanisms of this shift, the framework of Weaponized Interdependence has quickly risen to prominence, arguing that those states that are centrally placed in global networks can exploit their centrality given the appropriate domestic institutions. Building on this framework, I suggest that the relationship between states and the private corporations holding the resources states seek to exploit is more dynamic and contested than assumed. Drawing on developments in the industry for constructing and operating submarine cables, I find that a paradigm shift in the market has significantly limited the authority of states vis-à-vis key market players. The contribution of this finding is to expand Weaponized Interdependence as a framework, paying closer attention to the relationship between private companies and states. This expansion allows for the utilization of Weaponized Interdependence as a framework for a broader set of cases, explaining not only when a network is prone to weaponization but also the limitations states face when they seek to do so.

  • Cyber
Review of International political Economy.webp
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Op-ed

Verdens rikeste mann har geopolitiske ambisjoner. Derfor bekymrer Twitter-kjøpet.

Elon Musk's involvement in the Ukraine war and take-over of Twitter raise a number of questions and dilemmas (in Norwegian).

  • Security policy
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
Screenshot 2022-10-13 at 15.48.30.png
  • Security policy
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Digitale trusler blir kinkig for Norge i Sikkerhetsrådet

(Op-ed in Norwegian): De fleste land rangerer trusler via det digitale rom som en av de største utfordringene for det 21. århundret. På tross av dette har tematikken knapt vært nevnt i FNs sikkerhetsråd. Hva kommer det av? Og kan Norge gjøre noe med det? spør Niels Nagelhus Schia og Erik Kursetgjerde i denne DN-kronikken.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Chapter

Norwegian cybersecurity: a small-state approach to building international cyber cooperation

As a small, open and highly digitalized country, cyber security is an issue of growing policy importance in Norway. Yet, like other highly digitalized states, Norway has faced difficulties in squaring national cyber security with private business interests and the multitude of actors. Recent years has seen efforts aimed at uniting disparate institutions and organizations into a coherent framework that works.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • The Nordic countries
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • The Nordic countries
  • Governance
  • International organizations
Publications
Publications
Chapter

Managing a digital revolution: cyber security capacity building in Myanmar

Digitalization is exposing developing countries to a growing number of risks as well as opportunities associated with connecting to the Internet. Myanmar stands out as a critical case of both the pitfalls and the benefits Internet connection can bring. Amidst a political transition from military rule to a functioning democracy Myanmar is adding ICT to key areas like banking and e-government. Having been one of the least connected countries in the world only five years ago the country is now connecting to the Internet at an unprecedented pace, with few institutions in place to ensure the transition goes smoothly. The rapid expansion of Internet connectivity is connecting ever more people to an international world of business, discourse, and entertainment, but also crime, subterfuge, and discord. A crucial aspect for development in the years to come will be the harnessing of the benefits, as well as mitigating the downsides that inherently follow in the wake of Internet access (Schia, 2018). In this chapter, we examine the risks and potential benefits of Myanmar’s embracement of digital technologies.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
Publications
Publications
Chapter

Digital Vulnerabilities and the Sustainable Development Goals in Developing Countries

How does digitalization lead to new kinds of global connections and disconnections in the developing countries? And which role does digitalization play for the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals? This entry focuses on cybersecurity capacity building (CCB) and the sustainability of development processes in developing countries.

  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

Intergovernmental checkmate on cyber? Processes on cyberspace in the United Nations

Cyberspace is an increasingly controversial field on the international agenda. Despite the fact that processes on the thematic have been going on in the UN since 1998, a more significant international agreement is needed on what basic principles should apply in cyberspace. Small states have the opportunity of pushing cybersecurity as a thematic priority in the United Nations Security Council – a path Norway could pursue in its forthcoming 2021–2022 Security Council term. The attribution of the assumed Russian cyber operations toward the Norwegian parliament earlier this year actualizes the addressing of the issue in the Council. The policy brief discusses the GGE negotiations on cyberspace in 2015 and 2017 - and gives policy recommendations on the way forward.

  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • United Nations
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Offensive cyberoperasjoner: Den nye normalen?

Can states retaliate if they get digitally attacked in peace-time? What are states doing and what does international law say about this? What are the potential security implications of an eventual increase in the use of offensive cyber operations?

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Intelligence
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Intelligence
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Hacking democracy: managing influence campaigns and disinformation in the digital age

How are states responding to the threat of using digital technologies to subvert democratic processes? Protecting political and democratic processes from interference via digital technologies is a new and complicated security threat. In recent years the issue has been most prominent in terms of election security, yet the widespread usage of digital technologies allows for the subversion of democratic processes in multifaceted ways. From disrupting the political discourse with false information to inflaming and stoking political divisions digital technologies allows for a variety of ways for malicious actors to target democracies. This article compares different state experiences with interference in sovereign and contested political decisions. More specifically the article compares the Norwegian approach and experience in managing these challenges with those of Finland and the UK. Mapping both how the problem is understood, and the role of previous experiences in shaping public policy.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Chapter

The role of the UN Security Council in cybersecurity: international peace and security in the digital age

At the 75th anniversary of the United Nations, the UN Security Council is faced with difficult questions about its efficacy, relevance and legitimacy. The leading powers and the permanent members (P5) of the Security Council – China, France, Russia, the UK and the USA – are drawn into a heavy contest over the world order. Power lines are (to be) drawn in an increasingly digital, interconnected and multi-stakeholder society. So far, despite the language from heads of states, global media houses and from leaders of international organizations including NATO and the UN, none of the P5 countries have brought cyber to the UNSC. Other countries – for instance, Lithuania and the Netherlands – have considered introducing cybersecurity issues in the Council, but no action has followed. One of the most recent members-elect, Estonia, has pledged to take the issue up. To stay relevant and act up on its responsibility for international peace and security, the Security Council will have to establish itself vis-à-vis cyber issues. The goal of this chapter is to examine why and how. To what extent do questions pertaining to digital threats and cybersecurity fall within the mandate of the Council and what could it address given the politically tense times among the P5.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Governance
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Governance
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

The Politics of Stability: Cement and Change in Cyber Affairs

In November 2018, the Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace, inaugurated one year earlier ‘to develop proposals for norms and policies to enhance international security and stability and guide responsible state and non-state behavior in cyberspace’, launched six norms pointing ‘the way to new opportunities for increasing the stability of cyberspace’. However, the Commission has not examined or explained the very concept it was established to explore. Quite the contrary, the Commission argues that its proposed norms will be used to define what cyber stability actually is. Focusing on the interrelationship between international peace and stability, and ways of achieving both in the context of ICTs, the authors will offer a model of stability of cyberspace. They begin by examining the concepts of ‘stability’ and ‘strategic stability’ as understood with regard to international security. This conceptual analysis is followed by a presentation of the political claims of stability expressed in national and international cyber-and information-security discourses. Drawing on the conceptual approaches and the political claims, the report then model the stability of cyberspace in three interlinked and reinforcing dimensions: 1) equal and inclusive international relations; 2) prevention of war: the minimal peace, with emphasis on averting a devastating nuclear war between the superpowers; and 3) the functionality of global and national technical systems and services. After discussing how international law, preventive diplomacy, confidence-building measures, and norms of responsible state behaviour can support cyberspace stability, this report concludes with recommendations for action aimed at helping to create and maintain a stable - resilient and adaptive - cyberspace.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

Critical communication infrastructures and Huawei

Recently, there have been growing cyber-safety concerns over telecom equipment made by the Chinese vendor Huawei. This has led many countries to ban Huawei from supplying equipment for building the next generation of mobile networks, 5G. Responses from mobile operators and the telecom community in general have been mixed. For instance, many European mobile operators have stated that these concerns are overblown and that such a ban would delay 5G rollout by two to three years in the best case. Moreover, some operators have directly questioned the ability of the other vendors to timely deliver a complete 5G network. However, these claims have mostly not been grounded in empirical data. This paper takes a multi-perspective approach to investigating this problem empirically. We start by categorizing responses from different countries to using Huawei equipment in 5G. We then analyze the importance and readiness of Huawei for supplying 5G equipment. This analysis is based on contributions to standards and patents. We also present a conceptual risk analysis framework to qualitatively evaluate the ability of a single vendor to cause considerable damage to critical communication infrastructures. This model aims at exploring a set of relevant axis. More specifically, we look at potential for harm in different political climates that is peace, crisis and war. Another axis is whether banning a particular vendor from supplying equipment for the upcoming mobile networks generation is useful without having a backward compatible ban. A third axis is the ability of a vendor to cause harm as a function of the type of supplied equipment, for example radio towers vs network management systems. Combining the analysis of readiness for supplying 5G and potential for causing harm allows us to roughly estimate the likely impact that a complete ban would have on 5G rollout in different parts of the world. We find that such a ban can possibly delay 5G by two years or more for operators with high dependence on Huawei. Consequently, we explore potential approaches that would both reduce vendor-related risk and do not significantly delay the rollout of 5G. These include heterogeneous multi-vendor deployments, equipment verification and testing, international collaboration as well as signing non-aggression treaties. Unfortunately, there is no technological solution that fully remedy this problem. Combining technical solutions with efforts to build trust between countries, enforce existing alignments or create new ones seems a promising way forward.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
Publications
Publications
Report

Finding a European response to Huawei’s 5G ambitions

This policy brief suggests that European countries should institute national reviewing boards overseen by intelligence agencies to vet Huawei equipment. If that is not feasible due to a lack of resources or capabilities especially among smaller countries, European governments should consider pooling resources and create a common reviewing board. This would also prevent duplication of efforts on national levels. European authorities should also demand from Huawei to clearly separate its international from its domestic business operations in order to further reduce the risk to the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of European mobile networks.

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Asia
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Asia
Publications
Publications
Report

Forebygging av krig og konflikt i cyberdomenet

(Available in Norwegian only): Cyberdomenet representerer kanskje en av vår tids største trusler mot internasjonal fred og sikkerhet men er viet lite oppmerksomhet hva gjelder forebyg- ging av krig og konflikt. Det er behov for internasjon- ale forpliktende kjøreregler som hever blikket over IKT-forvaltning, digitalisering og cybersikkerhetstil- tak og fokuserer på fredelige relasjoner mellom sta- ter i cyberdomenet. Skal en slik diskusjon ha effekt må den tas i FNs Sikkerhetsråd.

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

Military Offensive Cyber-Capabilities: Small-State Perspectives

This Policy Brief provides an overview of the military cyber-defence strategies and capabilities of Norway and of the Netherlands. Comparison of the two different approaches offers insights into their differing tactics and future policy directions. The Brief contributes with a small-state perspective on this malleable and constantly changing field, nuancing the hitherto US-centred debate on the utility and need for deterrence and defence in cyberspace.

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Report

Parabasis: Cyber-diplomacy in Stalemate

Governments and industry around the world are working together to bring the next billion users online,1 but their synergies fade when it comes to how to keep online populations safe and secure. Further, the third and fourth billion of Internet users will enter a terrain very different from that available to their predecessors. Vulnerabilities in ICTs as well as de facto exploitation of these vulnerabilities by state and non-state actors has been acknowledged and problematized. Evidence of malicious and hostile operations involving ICTs and the Internet abounds. Uncertain about the true potential of ICTs, governments and users have focused on rules and responsibilities for protecting against cyberattacks, espionage and data manipulation. But where is there an understanding of how to remedy and improve the situation? The first part of this report analyzes and contextualizes the UN First Committee process. The second part offers the authors’ extensions to the theme, analyzing the relative successes and failures of the leading cyberpowers in promoting the world order of their liking. In particular, we analyze how Russia, as the initiator of the First Committee process, has created momentum and gathered support for its calls for specific international regulation and institutionalization of the process on the one hand, and stronger governmental control of the development and use of ICTs and the flow of information on the other. In conclusion, we offer some recommendations for governments wishing to pursue the goal of free and open cyberspace—indeed a rule-based world order. The full text can be read here: http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2569401

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

International Cybersecurity: Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark

Tikk and Kerttunen inform new entrants and nonparticipating governments of the discussions and outcomes of the UN First Committee Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) and discuss prospects for the 2019/2020 GGE. They explain why the Group will not able to provide answers to practical cybersecurity issues facing the majority of states. The authors call states to critically review their reasons for and expectations towards the UN First Committee dialogue on international cybersecurity.

  • Cyber
  • United Nations
  • Cyber
  • United Nations
Publications
Publications
Report

Cyber Security Capacity Building in Myanmar

Digitalization is exposing developing countries to a growing number of risks, as well as opportunities associated with connecting to the Internet. Myanmar stands out as a critical case of both the pitfalls and the benefits Internet connection can bring. Amidst a political transition from military rule to a functioning democracy Myanmar is adding ICT to key areas like banking and e-government. Having been one of the least connected countries in the world only five years ago the country is now connecting to the Internet at an unprecedented pace, with little or no institutions in place to ensure the transition goes smoothly. Using the framework of Cyber Security Capacity Building (CCB) we examine the risks and potential benefits of Myanmar’s embracement of digital technologies.

  • Cyber
  • Asia
  • Cyber
  • Asia
Publications
Publications
Report

Managing a Digital Revolution - Cyber Security Capacity Building in Myanmar

Digitalization is exposing developing countries to a growing number of risks, as well as opportunities associated with connecting to the Internet. Myanmar stands out as a critical case of both the pitfalls and the benefits Internet connection can bring. Amidst a political transition from military rule to a functioning democracy Myanmar is adding ICT to key areas like banking and e-government. Having been one of the least connected countries in the world only five years ago the country is now connecting to the Internet at an unprecedented pace, with little or no institutions in place to ensure the transition goes smoothly. Using the framework of Cyber Security Capacity Building (CCB) we examine the risks and potential benefits of Myanmar’s embracement of digital technologies.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Asia
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Asia
Publications
Publications
Report

Cyber-weapons in International Politics : Possible sabotage against the Norwegian petroleum sector

The use of digital weapons is a rising global problem. Society is rapidly becoming more digitalized – and thereby more vulnerable to attacks. These vulnerabilities are increasingly abused by states and other international actors: Information is stolen, and sabotage occurs. Politically motivated digital attacks against petroleum-sector infrastructure represent one such threat, but this has not attracted as much attention by politicians and business leaders as other security challenges in the sector. In an international crisis, Norwegian oil and gas deliveries to Europe could be attacked on a scale far exceeding what the private and public sectors experience on a daily basis. Such attacks could be aimed at stopping or hindering the physical delivery of petroleum, with direct economic, security and political implications beyond the digital domain.This report examines the issue of digital sabotage of the Norwegian petroleum sector by placing the issue in a geopolitical context, by examining previous cases, and by investigating the current security setup in the petroleum sector.

  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

The cyber frontier and digital pitfalls in the Global South

How does digitalisation lead to new kinds of global connections and disconnections in the Global South? And what are the pitfalls that accompany this development? Much of the policy literature on digitalisation and development has focused on the importance of connecting developing countries to digital networks. Good connection to digital networks may have a fundamental impact on societies, changing not only how individuals and businesses navigate, operate and seek opportunities, but also as regards relations between government and the citizenry. However, the rapid pace of this development implies that digital technologies are being put to use before good, functional regulatory mechanisms have been developed and installed. The resultant shortcomings – in state mechanisms, institutions, coordination mechanisms, private mechanisms, general awareness, public knowledge and skills – open the door to new kinds of vulnerabilities. Herein lie dangers, but also opportunities for donor/recipient country exchange. Instead of adding to the already substantial literature on the potential dividends, this article examines a less studied issue: the new societal vulnerabilities emerging from digitalisation in developing countries. While there is wide agreement about the need to bridge the gap between the connected and the disconnected, the pitfalls are many.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Economic growth
  • Development policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • International organizations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Economic growth
  • Development policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • International organizations
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Makt og avmakt i cyberspace: hvordan styre det digitale rom?

A secure cyberspace is a necessity for the functioning of the economic, political and social structures of modern-day society. The stability and development of cyberspace is not preordained, but something that has to be facilitated. Cyberspace is constantly changing and to govern the complex set of interests, agendas and implications multistakeholder initiatives that promote cooperation between the public and private sector and civil society are increasingly put forth as the solution. This form for cooperation is widely seen in the policy community as a panacea for securing cyberspace. While academics have questioned these initiatives’ functionality, few have studied why they do not work in practice. By focusing on the power dynamics between the different actors this article takes a step towards understanding how these dynamics create conflict of interest in governing cyberspace. Through case studies of multistakeholder initiatives on the international level and in Norway, this paper argues that these initiatives are implemented without the necessary preconditions for such a form of governance. This article is published in Norwegian.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • International organizations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • International organizations
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Trusselen fra cyberspace

(Op-ed in Norwegian only): Cyberangrep øker i omfang verden over. Norge er et av verdens mest digitaliserte land og dermed spesielt utsatt, men dette blir i stor grad oversett av politikere og næringslivsledere.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Book

Conflict in Cyber Space: Theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives

Adopting a multidisciplinary perspective, this book explores the key challenges associated with the proliferation of cyber capabilities. Over the past two decades, a new man-made domain of conflict has materialized. Alongside armed conflict in the domains of land, sea, air, and space, hostilities between different types of political actors are now taking place in cyberspace. This volume addresses the challenges posed by cyberspace hostility from theoretical, political, strategic and legal perspectives. In doing so, and in contrast to current literature, cyber-security is analysed through a multidimensional lens, as opposed to being treated solely as a military or criminal issues, for example. The individual chapters map out the different scholarly and political positions associated with various key aspects of cyber conflict and seek to answer the following questions: do existing theories provide sufficient answers to the current challenges posed by conflict in cyberspace, and, if not, could alternative approaches be developed?; how do states and non-state actors make use of cyber-weapons when pursuing strategic and political aims?; and, how does the advent of conflict in cyberspace challenge our established legal framework? By asking important strategic questions on the theoretical, strategic, ethical and legal implications and challenges of the proliferation of cyber warfare capabilities, the book seeks to stimulate research into an area that has hitherto been neglected. This book will be of much interest to students of cyber-conflict and cyber-warfare, war and conflict studies, international relations, and security studies.

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
Publications
Publications
Report

Teach a person how to surf: Cyber security as development assistance

Much policy literature on digitalization and development has focused on the importance of connecting developing countries to digital networks, and how such technology can expand access to information for billions of people in developing countries, stimulating economic activity, collaboration and organizations. Good connection to digital networks may have a fundamental impact on societies, changing not only how individuals and businesses navigate, operate and seek opportunities, but also as regards relations between government and the citizenry. Instead of adding to the substantial literature on the potential dividends, this report examines a less studied issue: the new societal vulnerabilities emerging from digitalization in developing countries. While there is wide agreement about the need to bridge the gap between the connected and the disconnected, the pitfalls are many, especially concerning cyber security, a topic often neglected, also in the recent World Bank report Digital Dividends (2016). The present report is an attempt at redressing this imbalance.

  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

Lær en mann å surfe

  • Cyber
  • Cyber
Publications
Publications
Report

Cyber Security Capacity Building in Developing Countries: challenges and Opportunities

Cyberspace is an intrinsic part of the development of any country. A strong cyber capacity is crucial for states to progress and develop in economic, political and social spheres. The need to integrate cyber capacity building and development policies has been documented by both the cyber community, academia and policy makers. The investment in securing cyberspace affects the success rate of other policy initiatives as well. However, there is a clear need for a deeper dialogue with the development community and recipient countries in order to better understand how to implement cyber capacities in practice in order to achieve broader development goals. To stimulate the debate on cyber capacity building and its impacton social and economic development worldwide this brief puts forward challenges to implementation. The aim is to set priorities and identify indicators of success and failure. To steer this process a better overview of initiatives and avoid duplication, it is necessary to set up the challenges that both the donors and recipients face. By doing this we move cyber capacity building one step closer to successful implementation.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
Publications
Publications
Report

Cyber Security Capacity Building in Developing Countries

Cyberspace is an intrinsic part of the development of any country. A strong cyber capacity is crucial for states to progress and develop in economic, political and social spheres. The need to integrate cyber capacity building and development policies has been documented by both the cyber community, academia and policy makers. The investment in securing cyberspace is crucial, as it affects the success rate of other policy initiatives as well. However, there is a clear need for a deeper dialogue with the development community and recipient countries in order to better understand how to implement cyber capacities in practice in order to achieve broader development goals. To stimulate the debate on cyber capacity building and its on social and economic development worldwide this brief puts forward challenges to implementation. The aim to is to set priorities and identify indicators of success and failure. To steer this process a better overview of initiatives and avoid duplication, it is necessary to set up the challenges that both the donors and recipients face. By doing this we move cyber capacity building one step closer to successful implementation.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
Publications
Publications
Scientific article

The Cyber Frontier

The cyber frontier perspective serves to explicate that the Global South’s participation in digitalization is not simply a matter of joining cyberspace. On the contrary, it is a matter of selective forms of global connection in combination with disconnection and exclusion. I contextualize security concerns by describing the trajectory of digitalization in the Global South. I proceed by exploring how “technological leapfrogging” can create new and unique societal vulnerabilities. By linking digitalization with security and economic growth, cybersecurity is seen in connection with development assistance and the implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Finally, I hold that this triple knot (digitalization, security and economic growht) represents an opportunity for donors such as the EU to foster new types of development assistance building on a continued engagement in the Global South.

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • United Nations

Projects

Forskningsprosjekt
2020 - 2022 (Completed)

Cybersecurity Capacity Centre for Southern Africa (C3SA)

C3SA informs policy through cybersecurity research to build national cyber capacity and resilience across Africa....

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Fragile states
  • International organizations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • Fragile states
  • International organizations
Research project
2019 - 2022 (Completed)

Digital sovereignty and autonomy (GAIA)

NUPI in collaboration with Simula Research Lab will map global data flows and their impact on national autonomy and sovereignty....

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Diplomacy
  • Governance
  • International organizations
Research project
2018 - 2019 (Completed)

Critical Digital Infrastructures (KRIDI)

Protecting critical infrastructures from digital threats is a key challenge for modern states, how should the state approach and make sense of the security of privately owned infrastructures?...

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
Research project
2019 (Completed)

Protecting Democracies from Digital Threats (PRODEM)

How are states responding to the threat of using digital technologies to subvert democratic processes?...

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Conflict
Research Project
2017 - 2022 (Completed)

Science, technology and warfare of the future

How does technology help to change how we percieve the world and how to act in it?...

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
Research Project
2013 - 2022 (Completed)

Countering Hybrid Warfare (Multinational Capability Development Campaign) (MCDC (CHW))

NUPI leads an international project on how to counter hybrid warfare....

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Conflict
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Conflict
Research project
2016 - 2018 (Completed)

Cybersecurity Capacity Building 2.0 - Bridging the digital divide and strengthening sustainable development

This project will study cybersecurity capacity building (CCB) and the sustainability of development processes in developing countries....

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Africa
  • Asia
  • International organizations
  • United Nations
Research Project
2017 - 2018 (Completed)

Digital Attacks against the Norwegian Petroleum Sector (DISP)

This project is mapping the threats and the historical usage of digital weapons against critical infrastructures, as well as examining the problems arising from unclear responsibilities in responding ...

  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Energy
  • The EU
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Energy
  • The EU
Research project
2017 (Completed)

Upholding the NATO cyber pledge: What does cyber deterrence and cyber resilience mean for NATO and Norway?

The aim of this project is to explore how and to what extent deterrence works in cyberspace or whether a focus on resilience as the new strategic logic is the way forward....

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • NATO
  • Cyber
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
  • International organizations
Research Project
2014 - 2015 (Completed)

Cybersecurity Capacity Building (CCB)

The project aims to systematically explore cyber security risks in developing countries...

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Cyber
  • Development policy
  • Foreign policy

Themes

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Cyber
  • International economics
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Peace operations
  • Governance
  • International organizations

Coordinator

Niels Nagelhus Schia
Senior Research Fellow, Head of the Research group on security and defense, Head of NUPI's Research Centere on New Technology

Events

9. May. 2023
08:00 - 09:30
NUPI
English
Cyber defence and the EU’s cyber posture
7. Apr. 2021
14:00 - 16:00
Microsoft Teams
English
The weakest link? Digital technology and cyber security capacity building in Developing Countries
17. Nov. 2020
14:00 - 15:00
Microsoft Teams
English
Naming and shaming of cyber intruders – does it work?
9. Jun. 2020
14:00 - 15:30
Webinar
English
WEBINAR: Security implications of AI and other emerging technologies
6. Oct. 2019
14:00 - 15:30
NUPI
English
The U.S. National Cyber Strategy and 5G
31. Oct. 2019
11:00 - 12:30
NUPI
English
Theory Seminar: Cyber Conflict in the study of International Relations
31. Oct. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
The U.S. Cyber Strategy of Persistent Engagement
2. Jun. 2019
12:00 - 13:30
NUPI
English
Lunch seminar: Peace, war and alliances in cyberspace
2. May. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Breakfast seminar: Cyber threats and what to do about them?
5. Feb. 2019
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Chinese cyber security and consequences for Europe
26. Aug. 2018
09:00 - 10:30
NUPI
English
Cyber security and the protection of critical infrastructure – an American perspective
24. Apr. 2018
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
The International Cyber Diplomacy Agenda
15. Jan. 2018
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
Cyber Intelligence and Nordic Security
7. Dec. 2017
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
English
Global governance of cyberspace - opportunities and challenges
9. Oct. 2017
12:30 - 14:00
NUPI
English
Facing new threats: The US cyber security strategy
15. Oct. 2017
12:15 - 13:15
NUPI
English
Estonia's president on security in the Baltic Sea region
17. Aug. 2017
13:00 - 14:30
NUPI
English
Cyber as a strategic dimension in National Security - The Israeli perspective
22. Mar. 2017
10:00 - 11:30
NUPI
English
The Internet of Things – how do we govern it?
3. May. 2018
13:15 - 15:00
NUPI
English
Theory Seminar: The Territorialization of Cybersecurity
27. Jan. 2016
10:00 - 12:00
NUPI
English
Launch of the World Bank Development Report 2016
6. Apr. 2015
NUPI
Norwegian
Cybersikkerhet i internasjonale fora: Hvem skal delta?
24. Nov. 2014
12:30 - 14:30
NUPI
Security and liberty in cyberspace. Countermeasures and dilemmas in securing a global free cyberspace
24. Nov. 2014
09:30 - 11:30
NUPI
Theory Seminar: Theorizing cybersecurity
22. Mar. 2017
13:15 - 15:00
NUPI
English
Theory seminar: Attribution and international society in cyber security