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NUPI skole

Europa

Europa er i endring. Økonomiske krisetider, konflikter i regionens grenseområder, krig i Ukraina, og forskyvning av makt på den globale politiske arenaen preger verdensdelen.

EU dominerer som tema for NUPIs forskning om Europa. Økt samarbeid og utvikling av felles institusjoner i Europa, EUs utenriks- og forsvarspolitikk, NATOs rolle i Europa og EUs politikk overfor nabostater og tilgrensende regioner er viktige temaer. I tillegg står spørsmål om energiproduksjon i Europa og europeisk energisikkerhet sentralt. Europas særstilling i norsk utenrikspolitikk og verdensdelens rolle i den globale geopolitikken er også prioriterte områder for NUPI.
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Research paper

The EU Trapped in the Venezuelan Labyrinth: Challenges to Finding a Way Out

This report explores how EU Foreign and Security Policy towards the political crisis in Venezuela can be assessed against the backdrop of diverging positions within the EU and as well as between the EU, the United States and other powers. The EU’s Venezuela policy has been anchored in three main pillars: first, supporting dialogue platforms between the government and the opposition; second, sanctioning the Maduro regime to force it to negotiate; and third, providing humanitarian aid helping neighbouring countries’ attend to the massive migratory flow of Venezuelans. Intra-EU contestation was linked to the recognition of opposition leader Guaidó as Venezuela’s interim president in 2019, but has eased since the EU dropped its recognition in 2021. Multipolar competition, and how it plays into patterns of regional fragmentation, has been another significant obstacle to the EU achieving its main foreign policy goal of free, fair and democratic elections. In the future, the EU approach should build on the renewed consensus between member states and focus on mediation, conditional sanctions relief, electoral observation, parliamentary diplomacy, support for regional governance and interregional cooperation.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
  • EU
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  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Public Policy Europeanisation in Response to the Covid‐19 Crisis: The Case of Job Retention Schemes

To what extent and how did the Covid-19-pandemic trigger the Europeanisation of public policy in the EU member states? This article addresses this question by exploring member states’ responses to the labour market implications of the pandemic. Although the EU due to its free movement principles in effect has a common labour market, labour market policies have remained in the hands of the member states. Nonetheless, we find that they responded in a surprisingly similar manner to rising unemployment caused by lockdowns. Was this policy change linked to Europeanisation processes, and if so, in what way? We find that member states’ responses were related both to economic incentives and to contingent learning playing out in largely informal settings at the EU level. Our findings shed light on how crises may function as a critical juncture that triggers policy change, and how the EU may play a key role in such change. Our study thus also adds insights to our understanding of the mechanisms that underpin Europeanisation, in particular by shedding light on the importance of informal learning processes and the influence of the European Commission also in formally less integrated policy areas.

  • Europa
  • Pandemier
  • Styring
  • EU
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  • Europa
  • Pandemier
  • Styring
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Constraints, Dilemmas and Challenges for EU Foreign Policy in Venezuela

Years of increasingly authoritarian rule and economic mismanagement by President Nicolás Maduro have turned Venezuela into a source of regional instability. The European Union’s (EU) main foreign policy objective towards the country has been a peaceful transition to free and transparent elections and its re-introduction into regional and global trade and political frameworks. The strategies pursued by the EU to mitigate the constraints on its foreign policy towards Venezuela have helped to bring about more EU unity, but have failed to have a significant impact in the country itself. Multipolar competition between the EU and the United States (US) on the one hand and between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Russia on the other, have undermined the EU’s attempts to contribute a peaceful solution to the process. Most recently, the war on Ukraine has created a new dilemma for the EU in its dealings with Venezuela, that is, having to navigate between maintaining pressure on the Maduro regime, keeping up momentum for negotiations and deciding whether to follow the US in resuming oil trade with Caracas to mitigate the energy crisis in Europe.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
  • EU
TIS.PNG
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
  • EU
RE-ENGAGE_forsidebilde.png
Forskningsprosjekt
2024 - 2026 (Pågående)

Re-Engaging with Neighbours in a State of War and Geopolitical Tensions (RE-ENGAGE)

RE-ENGAGEs skal hjelpe EU med å styrke sin utenrikspolitiske verktøykasse, inkludert utvidelses- og naboskapspolitikken. Dette vil styrke unionens geopolitiske innflytelse og gi den bedre verktøy for ...

  • Security policy
  • Regional integration
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Nation-building
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • Comparative methods
  • Security policy
  • Regional integration
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Nation-building
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • Comparative methods
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Bok

European Actorness in a Shifting Geopolitical Order. European Strategic Autonomy Through Differentiated Integration

This is an open access book. Over the past decade, the global geopolitical context has changed significantly, with a geopolitical power shift and a more assertive Russia and China. With the unprovoked Russian invasion of Ukraine, European security has been put on high alert. The implications of the Russian military invasion are many and difficult to grasp in full. But the need for greater European strategic autonomy appears increasingly evident. But how can this be achieved in the short run? The answer to this question is often that it is impossible and that this can only be achieved in the long run. The aim of this book is to present a different perspective. It aims at showing that it should be possible to make the most out of the current European system if we adjust our understanding of how it works. The book argues that strategic autonomy may be reached—also in the short run—if differentiated integration is seen as an asset rather than a challenge. While the EU remains the core in such a system (together with NATO in the military domain), there is a multitude of other (bilateral and minilateral) regional and sub-regional integration processes that need to be taken into account to get the full idea of how European strategic autonomy can be achieved. This book starts by presenting a theoretical framework for how to study European actorness beyond the EU, then this framework will be applied both to the development towards the EU as a foreign policy actor through the mechanisms of enlargement.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • EU
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  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • EU
Europa ruster opp
Podkast

Europa ruster opp

"Vi lever i et tidsskille", sa Tysklands forbundskansler Olaf Scholz da han annonserte at Tyskland skulle ruste opp sitt forsvar med 100 milliarde...

  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Defence
  • Security policy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

EUs respons på krigen i Ukraina

  • Europa
  • Konflikt
  • EU
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  • Europa
  • Konflikt
  • EU
Aktuelt
Ny forskning
Aktuelt
Ny forskning

Russiske røster mot krig

Stemmer det at den russiske motstanden mot krigen i Ukraina er helt fraværende?
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • Konflikt
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

How the UK’s post-Brexit foreign policy came home

After leaving the EU, the UK needed to rethink its place in the world. Kristin Haugevik and Øyvind Svendsen examine the aspirations and meanings underpinning the “Global Britain” narrative and argue that its scope and ambitions have changed significantly in the years following the Brexit referendum.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
Aktuelt
Nyhet
Aktuelt
Nyhet

PODKAST: Europa rustar opp

Store ting er i ferd med å skje med forsvaret i Europa – og Tyskland har gjort ei fullstendig heilomvending. Høyr siste episode av Utenrikshospitalet.
  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • NATO
  • Regional integrasjon
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Konflikt
  • EU
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