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Teori og metode

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Vitenskapelig artikkel

Semi-cores in imperial relations: The cases of Scotland and Norway

Recently, the field of International Relations has seen increased interest in international hierarchy, and also an upswing in the analytical study of imperial logics of rule. Nonetheless, existing structural models of empire focus on core-periphery dynamics, and so cannot explain polities that display elements of both core and periphery. Therefore, I offer the new concept of ‘semi-cores’. Semi-cores are a specific form of historical political associations whereby certain imperial provinces are different from the others in terms of the close relationships it maintains with the imperial metropolis. Semi-cores are different by virtue of being relatively similar. The conceptualisation of semi-cores is followed by a section illustrating its logic, examining the relatively unfamiliar cases of Scotland and Norway and their position within the Danish and British empires, respectively. Although being separate imperial provinces, these were tightly connected to an imperial core. This concept helps us better understand imperial logics, and in the process shows how cultural factors can be formalised into accounts of structural logics of rule, impacting our understanding of both historical and contemporary hierarchical international affairs.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
kapittel

The formative years: Norway as an obsessive status-seeker

This chapter shows how status concerns were central to how Norway related to the wider world during the formative nineteenth century: status and identity were inextricably intertwined. It argues that Norwegian politics throughout the nineteenth century were deeply concerned with status and status seeking. When Norwegians started discussing foreign politics and foreign policy, it was in terms of peace, prosperity and status, with the people closely linked to all these phenomena. The many active NGOs as well as the constant references to duties and a Norwegian mission indicate that this explanation must be taken seriously. Even though the resources spent internally in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs have been modest, the sheer mass of public attention paid to peace issues has probably made it harder to discuss other matters in Norwegian foreign policy. Various Norwegian politicians have noted that peace activism has given them better access to great-power decision-makers.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

International Relations Pluralism and History—Embracing Amateurism to Strengthen the Profession

This article approaches the possibility of achieving pluralist International Relations research through engagements with history/History. There are serious sociological and disciplinary challenges to achieving pluralism, most importantly related to the need to make a mark and a career in one specific discipline and the constant diversification of disciplines. Even so, drawing on the literature of amateurism, understood as engaging in an activity for the love of it, it is argued here that a spirit of engaged amateurism in dealing with history offers an important opportunity for exploring commonalities and fostering pluralism both within the discipline and across disciplinary boundaries.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Omverdenen som utfordring – imperieoppløsning og folkestyrets begrensning

Hvordan skal man som ny stat forholde seg til omverdenen? Dette var et av de spørsmålene som kom opp til tidlig og heftig debatt på Eidsvoll i 1814, og som delte forsamlingen på midten. Unionspartiet ville ha bred drøfting av forholdet til andre stater, mens selvstendighetspartiet foretrakk å overlate dem til Christian Frederik. I denne artikkelen settes argumentene fra debatten i 1814 inn i en bredere idéhistorisk kontekst. Fremveksten av det vi i dag kaller «utenrikspolitikk» forstås her i tett sammenheng med gradvis differensiering av politikkbegrepet og grensedragning mellom stat og samfunn. Utenrikspolitikk forstås dermed som det som skiller ikke bare mellom statens utside og dens innside, men også mellom stat og samfunn. Debatten i 1814 gir et øyeblikksbilde av denne utviklingen, med arven fra eneveldet så vel som nye ideer om folkelig deltagelse.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Styring
  • Historisk IR
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Styring
  • Historisk IR
Benjamin  de Carvalho
Forskere

Benjamin de Carvalho

Forsker 1

Benjamin de Carvalho er forsker 1 ved NUPI. Hans forskningsinteresse ligger mellom tre hovedområder: Han jobber med problemstillinger knyttet til...

  • Globalisation
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Peace operations
  • Humanitarian issues
  • Nation-building
  • Oceans
  • United Nations
  • Historical IR
  • Globalisation
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Peace operations
  • Humanitarian issues
  • Nation-building
  • Oceans
  • United Nations
  • Historical IR
Halvard  Leira
Forskere

Halvard Leira

Forsker I

Hovedområder i Halvard Leiras forskning er utenrikspolitikk og diplomati, med særlig vekt på Norge. Han har også forsket på internasjonale relasjo...

  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • The Nordic countries
  • Nationalism
  • Oceans
  • Historical IR
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • The Nordic countries
  • Nationalism
  • Oceans
  • Historical IR
Kari M. Osland
Forskere

Kari M. Osland

Direktør

Kari Margrethe Osland (PhD) direktør ved NUPI.Oslands arbeid har fokusert overveiende på konfliktdynamikk, opprør, fredsoperasjoner og fredsbyggin...

  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Peace operations
  • Human rights
  • United Nations
  • Comparative methods
  • Security policy
  • Europe
  • Africa
  • Peace operations
  • Human rights
  • United Nations
  • Comparative methods
Morten Skumsrud Andersen
Forskere

Morten Skumsrud Andersen

Seniorforsker, leder for Forskningsgruppen for global orden og diplomati

Morten S. Andersen er seniorforsker og leder for Forskningsgruppen for global orden og diplomati. I tillegg til teori og metodologi, handler forsk...

  • International investments
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Governance
  • Historical IR
  • International investments
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Governance
  • Historical IR
Minda  Holm
Forskere

Minda Holm

Seniorforsker

Minda Holm er seniorforsker i forskningsgruppen Global orden og diplomati.Hun jobber særlig sosial- og politisk-teoretisk med spørsmål knyttet til...

  • Security policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • Historical IR
  • Security policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • Russia and Eurasia
  • Conflict
  • Governance
  • International organizations
  • Historical IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

'Our entire people are natural born friends of peace': the Norwegian foreign policy of peace

What makes a peace nation? In this article it is argued that the Norwegian foreign policy of peace is rooted in an historical self‐understanding of Norway and Norwegians as particularly peaceful, an identity which was first articulated around 1890. Norwegians hold a strong liberal/meliorist belief that the world can become a better place, and that Norway has an important role to play in this process. However, this general belief in peace and a Norwegian peaceful exceptionalism has been expressed in different ways over the last 120 years. Around 1900, the ideal was a passive state and an active people working for peace, while from around 1920 it was accepted that the state needed to take more active part. Where international peace activism was associated in particular with UN peacekeeping during the Cold War, and peace mediation during the 1990's, increasingly a broader panoply of ‘good’ issues have been tied to an ever expanding notion of peace. The last two decades have also seen increased Norwegian participation in offensive military actions, couched at least partly in terms of peace. That the Norwegian attachment to peace remains strong while still allowing for support to military action suggests both that the Norwegian self‐understanding as a peace nation is deeply rooted and that it allows for a self‐righteous understanding of ‘peace through war’.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
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