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Teori og metode

Hva er de sentrale spørsmålene knyttet til teori og metode?
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A conceptual history of diplomacy

Scholars of diplomacy have identified diplomatic practices across the human experience, spanning the globe and going back before recorded history. Even so, the actual term ‘diplomacy’ did not enter into usage until the last decade of the 18th century. Does this discrepancy matter, and if so, what can it tell us? These are the underlying questions of this chapter. Drawing on a relatively modest secondary literature, as well as a number of primary sources, Leira emphasises the relative modernity of the concept of ‘diplomacy’, and how it emerged very rapidly as part of a much wider transformation of political vocabularies around 1800. Furthermore, he stresses, how it emerged as a contested concept (almost a term of abuse), and how it has repeatedly been contested over the last two centuries.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Kvinner i diplomati og internasjonal politikk

Hvor er kvinnene? Dette spørsmålet har vært et av utgangspunktene for flere tiår med kvinnestudier i humaniora og samfunnsfag, etter hvert kjønnsstudier, der det slående ofte har vist seg at kvinnene har vært til stede hele tiden, det har bare ikke vært noen (menn) som har brydd seg om å lete etter dem. Innenfor diplomatistudier er de bøkene som vurderes her blant de første som reiser spørsmålet på systematisk vis. I denne bokanmeldelsen tar Halvard Leira for seg Glenda Sluga og Carolyn James' "Women, Diplomacy and International Politics since 1500".

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
Rita Augestad Knudsen
Forskere

Rita Augestad Knudsen

Seniorforsker

Rita Augestad Knudsen er seniorforsker på NUPI i forskningsgruppen for sikkerhet og forsvar. Hun arbeider spesielt med kontraterror, spesielt fore...

  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Human rights
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • Historical IR
  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Human rights
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • Historical IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

CONSTRUCTION TIME AGAIN: HISTORY IN CONSTRUCTIVIST IR SCHOLARSHIP

In this article we seek to understand how succeeding generations of constructivists have invoked history to exact narratives of change within IR. We make the case that there is a move from a rst generation where history served primarily to undermine generalised and ahistorical mainstream arguments through a second generation where history was providing data to undercut speci c mainstream stories, replacing them with their own largely progressive stories, to a third generation where history is embraced for its own purpose, where history is seen as more open-ended and contingent. This has been a move from the general to the particular and from a meta-critique of the mainstream through accommodation with the mainstream, to a more localised opposition against the mainstream.

  • Historisk IR
  • Historisk IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Bok

Norsk utenrikspolitisk idehistorie, 1890-1940

Norges utenrikspolitiske ideverden er særegen. Denne boka tar for seg idetradisjonene som slo inn i norsk politikk rundt forrige århundreskifte, og som i tiden etter bidro til å forme Norges forestillinger om verden omkring oss og om Norges plass og rolle i den. Liberale argumenter har formet den norske fredstanken, betoningen vår av folkerettens sentrale plass og av internasjonalt samarbeid i ordnede, universelle former. Men hvor kommer disse ideene fra, og hvorfor slo de så dype røtter i Norge? Forfatterne viser hvilke forestillinger og ideer som har vært og er tonengivende i norsk utenrikspolitikk, og setter disse inn i et større, politisk og idehistorisk perspektiv. De viser blant annet hvordan den liberale fredstanken har vært en vedvarende kraft i det utenrikspolitiske ordskiftet og diskuterer hvorfor Norge har manglet en konservativ idetradisjon. Norges naboland har hatt et markant innslag av maktpolitiske resonnementer som har manglet i den norske idetradisjonen.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
kapittel

Private Force and the Making of States, c. 1100-1500

This chapter shows how the distinction between the public and the private emerges with respect to the use of force in conjunction with the long rise of the state in Europe. In drawing a historical conceptual analysis of the changing organization of military power in the making of states, I show why we need to take an empirical rather than an ideological approach to the distinction between different types of force, as only then can we hope to understand why and for what purposed power was organized in specific ways, and the consequences of that organization. The chapter takes as its starting point the late eleventh century, a period when public authorities had been decimated throughout Christendom and where kings no longer held the aura of public authority, but were (private) contestants for public authority on equal footing with their competitors. Both public and private force was private, so to speak. I proceed in five sections. The first addresses the relationship between war-making and state-making, a relationship which is central to much of the literature on state formation and to our further discussion. The next three sections address the chronology of changes in the organization of force, and move from warfare as a knightly (largely) private enterprise to the wars of mercenaries, culminating in the early attempts at holding standing permanent armies around the late fifteenth century. The claim is not that this process was linear or inevitable, and, as demonstrated in the last section, the centralization of the legitimate means of warfare in the hands of public authorities did not mean the end of private enterprise in a world of states. Rather, private enterprise continued alongside public force, albeit in a different character.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

Private force and the emergence of the international system

This chapter deals with the importance of private force to the early emergence and spread of the international system. It discusses how varieties of non-traditional forms of force helped maintain what was in many ways an international system of empires. The chapter focuses on the rules, norms and values of the system and shows how the gradual abolishment of private force has helped foster ideational cohesion in the international system. It also focuses on modes of interaction, and on how an unintended consequence of the use of private force has been a functionalist push for a tighter integrated system. The chapter also deals with mercenarism, privateering and piracy, the most important forms of private force for the emergence of the international system. It concludes that private force should be understood as one of the central productive forces in the gradual emergence of the modern international system.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Hav
  • Historisk IR
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Hav
  • Historisk IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

Doing Historical International Relations

The relationship between International Relations and History has varied greatly over the last century, following largely from the historiographical changes in International Relations theorising. This volume details the changing relationship over the last 60 years, through a number of both seminal and newer texts. The volume starts with classics of the 1950’s and 60’s, continues with the ebb of historical scholarship in the 1970’s and 80’s and the forceful calls for a regeneration, and concludes with the opening of new perspectives over the last two decades. Although the newer generations have indeed rehashed some of the older ideas, there has also been an obvious increase in the sophistication of (meta) theoretical reflection and methodological awareness. There have never been more or more varied ways of justifying historical scholarship in International Relations.

  • Diplomati
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Historisk IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

The History of International Thought

Being a distinct discipline entails being able to recount the disciplinary history and pre-history, and in IR this has led to a sustained engagement, first with the history of international thought in the classical sense, then with historiography. Over the last decades, scholars have increasingly come to see International Relations Theory neither as the recurrence of ancient patterns of thought nor as a miraculous conception of the early 20th century. Rather, continuous stories have been written, where IR has become tied to a wide variety of previous thought. In this volume we explore this scholarship in breadth, explicitly opposing the notion of “great traditions” and “great debates”, and focusing primarily on the challenges, and on works undermining, redirecting or expanding the canon.

  • Diplomati
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Historisk IR
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Bok

Historical International Relations

As a quarry for data, testing-ground for theory and site of investigation, history has been one of the unacknowledged partners of International Relations. The last two decades has witnessed both a substantial increase in the scope of historical IR scholarship and in the sophistication of methodological approaches to history, accompanied by a rapidly increasing (and multidisciplinary) interest in the history of international thought, as well as an ever more sophisticated historiography of the discipline itself. This Major Work is structured in a way to engage with the key recent developments in the field of international relations, providing the reader with an overview of approaches to history in IR; the history of international thought/historiography; and the emergence of the state and the state system.

  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
  • Diplomati
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Historisk IR
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