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Diplomati og utenrikspolitikk

Hva er de sentrale spørsmålene knyttet til diplomati og utenrikspolitikk?
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Power, Principles and Procedures : Reinterpreting French foreign policy towards the USA (2001-2003)

French foreign policy towards the US is often understood as particularly confrontational and based on traditional power politics, or a wish to re-establish “la grandeur de la France”. This article aims at investigating the validity of this widely held view. It further seeks to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the French positions by studying the arguments used by the French political leadership and the implications of the Iraq conflict for bilateral cooperation at lower levels. This study questions the common assumption of IR theory that national identities and/or interests are fixed and independent of structural factors such as international norms and values. It also questions the value of focusing exclusively on diplomatic or “top-level” bilateral relations, without looking at “low-level” or practical bilateral cooperation and/or conflicts.

  • Diplomati
  • Diplomati
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Norway's Fredskorpset Youth Program : Study of selected exchange projects

The Fredskorpset Youth program is a North-South exchange program facilitating the exchange of young people between partner organizations or institutions of Norway and countries of the South. The present study was commissioned in order to assess the degree to which stated goals of the exchanges were realized. Four exchanges were selected to be studied: between a Norwegian and Kenyan student organization (AIESEC); between a Norwegian missionary organization (NMS) and its counterpart church in Madagascar (FLM); between local Red Cross organizations in Norway and Uganda; and between a Norwegian (VUC) and two Malawian teacher training institutions (CC, LTTC). Objectives of the programs included acquiring new knowledge, attitudes and commitment at the level of individual participants, organizational strengthening and development of international contacts at the institutional level, and dissemination of information. As goals were mostly quite loosely formulated, it was difficult to assess the degree to which they were realized with any precision. Findings varied between the exchanges, but in general individual objectives were reached to some extent, while results might have been even stronger with more systematic attention to them. Institutional goals were achieved in most of the cases. In terms of information dissemination, this could be strengthened in most of the exchange programs.

  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Fredsoperasjoner
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Fredsoperasjoner
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Tollnedtrapping for industrivarer i WTO - Virkninger for Norge

Notatet diskuterer mulige virkninger av tollreduksjoner gjennom forhandlinger i WTO for eksport av norske industrivarer. Ulike forslag om tollreduksjoner, som bruken av den såkalte Girards formel diskuteres. Det vises at reduksjoner i tråd med Girards formel kan gi økt norsk eksport på i underkant av to prosent for et utvalg av land. Virkningene er ulikt fordelt over handelspartnere og sektorer. For land Norge har preferanseavtaler med gir tollreduksjoner gjennom WTO ingen økning i eksport. For andre land vil tollreduksjoner gi til dels betydelig effekt.

  • Handel
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Handel
  • Utenrikspolitikk
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Væpnet hjelp utenfra i norsk sikkerhetspolitikk

Denne rapporten undersøker hvilken rolle muligheten for å få væpnet hjelp fra andre land har spilt i norsk sikkerhetspolitisk tenkning og planlegging gjennom de siste vel hundre år. Studien ser på hvilke forestillinger man i Norge på begynnelsen av forrige århundre hadde om denne muligheten, på et tidspunkt da den av hensyn til nøytralitetspolitikkens troverdighet ikke burde nevnes høyt. Hvordan tanken om væpnet hjelp utenfra, fra å være stilltiende spekulasjon, kom inn som tema i den offentlige debatt, og hvilke motforestillinger den møtte, blir også viet oppmerksomhet. Noen av de problemstillinger som i denne sammenheng ble reist, blir også viet særskilt oppmerksomhet når det deretter blir sett nærmere på den betydning forutsetningen om væpnet hjelp fra allierte i tilfelle aggresjon fikk i norsk forsvars- og sikkerhetspolitikk etter siste verdenskrig. De muligheter denne forutsetningen åpnet, de dilemmaer den reiste og de krav den stilte, blir særskilt belyst. Til slutt blir søkelyset satt på hva forutsetningen om væpnet hjelp fra allierte i tilfelle behov, har fått å si for sikkerhetspolitisk planlegging og for forsvarets rolle og utforming etter den kalde krigen, med et NATO under sterk endring i bakgrunnen.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utenrikspolitikk
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Evaluation of Fadcanic's teacher training program in Nicaragua's Southern autonomous region of the Atlantic Coast

Since 1997, FADCANIC has been implementing a training program for unqualified teachers working in primary schools of Nicaragua’s Southern autonomous region of the Atlantic Coast. SAIH, the Norwegian NGO that has been funding this program, has commissioned the present evaluation. It concludes that the program has had a significant impact in terms of improving education in the region through addressing one of the most urgent needs of the educational sector, namely teacher qualifications. However, the evaluation also points out a number of other limitations for the sector, including lack of resources for materials, physical infrastructure and reasonable teacher salaries, as well as general social problems of the region. It recommends that the program is continued, and that even greater emphasis is put upon creating a teacher education appropriate to the multilingual and -cultural reality.

  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Sør- og Mellom-Amerika
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Transition from socialism - the corruption heritage

The paper explores the apparently high incidence of corruption in those former socialist countries where the Communist Party lost power. It argues that part of the explanation of the high corruption incidence is to be sought in the simultaneous production decline which gives rise to a Schumpeter effect, where former bureaucrats are becoming corruption entrepreneurs. Another important factor is the swift change in the ruling norms giving rise to a Huntington effect an overshooting of the applicability of the market mechanism. An important driver of both effects is the monetation of the centralised multitiered bartering system of the old socialist economies. That process is briefly compared to older forms of market expansion into decentralised non-market agricultural economies as analysed by Polanyi and Marx.

  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Utviklingspolitikk
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Linking Issues : Should one bargain over two issues simultaineously or separately?

International negotiations on trade (e.g. GATT and TRIPS) have typically been of the packageform, and different issues have therefore been linked to each other. Trade issues have not been linked to e.g. environmental agreements in negotiations, however. This paper studies the outcome of linked bargaining, where two issues are simultaneously negotiated over by two countries. We notice that there always exist gains from linkages in bargaining, and that such linking will always occur in equilibrium if there is a pre-stage where the countries are bargaining over the agenda. The outcome under linked bargaining is compared with the outcome under separate negotiations, and the circumstances where a country will gain or lose from linking are characterized. The results help us to understand different countries’ preferences for linkages in bargaining.

  • Diplomati
  • Diplomati
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Corruption. A review of contemporary research

This report is an overview of contemporary research on corruption. The main objectives of the study have been to organise existing knowledge on corruption, discuss the major controversies within and across disciplines and to identify some areas in most need for further research with an emphasis on questions relevant for development policy. The review has been carried out as a joint study by researchers at the Chr. Michelsen Institute (CMI), Bergen, and the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Oslo. Special thanks to the CMI and NUPI librarians for their assistance. Financial support from the Norwegian Agency for Development Co-operation, (NORAD) and extra time from our institutes are gratefully acknowledged. The survey may be somewhat biased towards economic approaches, reflecting the fact that the writing and editing have primarily been done by the economists Odd-Helge Fjeldstad (CMI) and Jens Chr. Andvig (NUPI). In addition, Tina Søreide (CMI), also an economist, has contributed to chapter 3. Inge Amundsen(CMI), a political scientist, has written chapter 4 and made several contributions to chapters 2 and 10. Tone Sissener (CMI), a social anthropologist, has written chapter 5. The study focuses on academic research. While a survey of the output from public commissions would be useful, they are not systematically covered here. Moreover, to make the survey accessible to a multidisciplinary readership, efforts have been made to present the more abstract and technical research in a non-technical way. In spite of its limitations we hope this survey will be considered useful – and be used – by researchers, students, development practitioners and aid officials.

  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Utviklingspolitikk
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

Forsvar og identitet: de norske friskusverdiene

Dette kapitlet diskuterer forholdet mellom norsk nasjonal identitet og norsk forsvarspolitikk. Det argumenteres for at forsvarets legitimitet etter 2. verdenskrig har hvilt på et sett uuttalte verdier som var sentrale i ettertidens tolkning av, og fortellinger om, krigen i Norge. Disse krigsmytenes styrke ligger i deres fremstilling av historien i avpolitiserte og «naturlige» former. Mytene fremhever et sett verdier som ikke kan relativiseres, og som regnes som evige i norsk kultur. De er dermed sentrale verdier i norsk identitet generelt. Derfor har de vært viktige i ettertidens tolkning og legitimering av motstandskampen under krigen, men også for oppbygningen av det moderne forsvaret i Norge. Teoretisk forsøker artikkelen å vise det konstruktivistiske poenget at alt sosialt er historisk betinget. Det finnes intet essensielt, universelt og evig gitt i det sosiale. Selv de mest inngrodde «sannheter» har en historie, og er i stadig endring selv om vi ikke merker det. Imidlertid er nettopp en tilsynelatende inngrodd «sannhet» et eksempel på hvordan makten fungerer i moderne samfunn; den skaper og begrenser politiske handlingsrom.

  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utenrikspolitikk
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