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Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika

Konfliktene og krisene i Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika står sentralt i NUPIs forskning på regionen.

Hvilken rolle fremvoksende stormakter spiller i disse konfliktene, og hvordan stormaktspolitikken påvirker dynamikken i regionen, er viktige spørsmål. Dette er også spørsmål som berører forhold andre steder i verden, særlig når det gjelder energi. Utviklingen i enkeltland som Egypt, Syria og Iran følges også tett, i tillegg til spørsmål knyttet til sikkerhetssituasjonen i området og hvordan denne blir påvirket av aktører og konflikter andre steder i Afrika.
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Utenrikspolitikkens mål er å gjøre innenrikspolitikken mulig

I en mer tilspisset geopolitisk tid, er sannsynligheten økende for at verdens største statlig eide fond vil bli del av utenrikspolitiske problemstillinger. Både fordi skillet mellom politikk og økonomi er vanskeligere å opprettholde i 2024 enn på 90-tallet, samt fordi fondet er blitt så enormt stort. Andre land ofte verken skjønner eller godtar fullt ut at det er et skille mellom fondet og Norges øvrige politikk. Fondets framtid er av fundamental interesse for Norge. Norske myndigheter bør derfor forberede seg på at mer vanskelige utenrikspolitiske problemstillinger for fondet trolig kommer.

  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Økonomisk vekst
  • Internasjonale investeringer
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Asia
  • Konflikt
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  • Internasjonal økonomi
  • Økonomisk vekst
  • Internasjonale investeringer
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Asia
  • Konflikt
Hvor hender det?
Norge er veldig opptatt av å jobbe for fred og sikkerhet i Afrika. Men hvorfor?
  • Security policy
  • Terrorism and extremism
  • Development policy
  • Diplomacy
  • Foreign policy
  • Europe
  • The Middle East and North Africa
  • Africa
  • The Nordic countries
  • Humanitarian issues
  • Conflict
  • Fragile states
  • Migration
  • Climate
  • Human rights
  • International organizations
  • The EU
  • AU
Aktuelt
Analyse
Aktuelt
Analyse

KRONIKK: Palestina er viktig for Kina. Av flere grunner.

Kina har ikke vist vilje til å kritisere Russland for krigen i Ukraina. Kontrasten til pekefingeren de nå retter mot Israels krigføring, er slående, skriver Hans Jørgen Gåsemyr i Aftenposten.
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Asia
  • Konflikt
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Policy brief summarising the EU and other stakeholder’s prevention strategy towards violent extremism in the region, Middle East

The EU-Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Preventive Violent Extremism (PvE) co-operation is wide-ranging, and has been since a formalized partnership between the EU and MENA countries was outlined in the 1995 Barcelona Declaration. It has nevertheless received added attention following numerous terrorist attacks within the EU during the last decade; and European foreign fighters have been linked to the attacks in Paris in 2015; in Brussels, Berlin, and Nice in 2016; and in Manchester, London, and Barcelona in 2017.

  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
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  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Policy brief summarizing the EU and other stakeholders’ prevention strategy towards violent extremism in the Maghreb and the Sahel

What is the European Union (EU) doing to prevent and counter violent extremism (P/CVE) in north-western Africa, specifically in the Maghreb and Sahel region? Building upon the EU Counter Terrorism Strategy (EU Council 2005), the EU Strategy for combating radicalization and recruitment to terrorism has increasingly emphasized the ‘internal-external security nexus’ and the need to strengthen co-operation with key third countries in the fields of counterterrorism, anti-radicalization, prevention, and countering of violent extremism (EU Parliament 2015; EU Parliament and EU Council 2017). The fight against violent extremism has thus become one of the most prominent objectives in EU external action, especially as far as the (enlarged) neighbourhood is concerned (Durac 2017). Yet scientific inquiry into the EU’s role in this

  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
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  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Notat

Working Paper on enabling environments, drivers, and occurrence/nonoccurrence of violent extremism

Why does violent extremism not occur in enabling environments? Based on recent field work in the Sahel and the Maghreb region this is the main question we seek to understand in this working paper. To understand non-occurrence and thereby the foundations of social and individual resilience, we also need to understand the drivers of violent extremism and why they gain traction among some populations while others show much higher degrees of resilience. To achieve this, we will zoom in on cases in Mali, Niger, Tunisia and Morocco, showcasing different trajectories of occurrence and non-occurrence.

  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
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  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Policy brief summarizing lessons learnt on the EU’s measures to prevent violent extremism in the region

How do EU initiatives that are geared to help prevent and counter violent extremism in North Africa and the Sahel match the underlying drivers of radicalisation? This PREVEX Policy Brief offers a reading of EU strategies in the backlight of our findings, which stem from fieldwork that was conducted in cases of both occurrence and non-occurrence of violent extremist escalation across North Africa and the Sahel. As scholarly literature lays emphasis on how phenomena such as violent extremism are highly context-dependent, it is crucial to understand regional and local dynamics of social change and intermediation. This brief therefore provides an overall assessment of EU P/CVE policies and projects in North Africa and the Sahel, focusing on key contextual policy issues: democratic governance, rule of law, education, gender, reintegration. It argues that EU’s emphasis on rule of law is particularly appropriate, while there is room for greater engagement in the fields of education and reintegration – provided that conflict-sensitive lenses are carefully applied. In the fields of democratic governance and gender, instead, a mismatch between general strategies and on-the-ground implementation can be observed. Targeted research in these critical areas of intervention and assistance is highly needed. Overall, our analysis invites to consider radicalisation processes not as social pathology but as ongoing social phenomena that take place in a space where several actors rival for material and ideational resources, and therefore require careful assessment and multi-scalar prioritisation, including at the regional and transnational level.

  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Styring
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  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Styring
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Notat
Erik Skare, Ahmad Mhidi, Georges Fahmi, Nouran Ahmed, Kamaran Palani, Myriam Ababsa, Olivier Roy, Dlawer Ala‘Aldeen

Working Paper on ´enabling environments´, drivers and occurrence/nonoccurrence of violent extremism in the region

There are a number of grievances attributed as drivers of violent extremism. Poverty, autocratic governance, human rights violations, precarious masculinities, or the lack of education, mentioning just some, all create what we may term “enabling environments”. Still, the majority living in such enabling environments and who experience such grievances do not engage in any acts of violence or join any violent extremist organizations. This begs the question, why do some communities display far greater resilience to violent extremist ideologies than others? Based on in-depth fieldwork in Egypt, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq, we study and analyze four cases of the non-occurrence of violent extremism in the Middle East to further our understanding of enabling environments, community resilience, and the decisive moments pushing people to, or away from, violence.

  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
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  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief
Erik Skare, Ahmad Mhidi, Georges Fahmi, Nouran Ahmed, Kamaran Palani, Myriam Ababsa, Olivier Roy, Dlawer Ala‘Aldeen

Policy brief summarizing lessons learnt on the EU’s measures to prevent violent extremism in the region

There are a number of grievances attributed as drivers of violent extremism. Poverty, autocratic governance and human rights violations, precarious masculinities, or the lack of education, mentioning just some, all create what we may term “enabling environments” – areas in which various factors create a conducive situation where segments of its population become prone to violent extremism. Still, the majority living in such enabling environments and experiencing these grievances do not engage in any acts of violence or join any extremist organizations. This begs the question, why do some communities display far greater resilience to violent extremist ideologies than others? In our newly released PREVEX working paper analyzing the drivers, occurrence, and non-occurrence of violent extremism in the MENA region, we study four cases of the nonoccurrence of violent extremism in Egypt, Jordan, Syria, and Iraq.1 Specifically, we analyze why segments among disenfranchised Islamist Egyptian youth, the majority of Jordanian jihadists, the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI), and the Syrian village Swedan in the Deir Ez-Zor province have displayed a far greater resilience to carrying out violent extremism than others. We assess the role and importance of local community and religious leaders, the role of tribal affiliation, ideological exposure, good governance and political inclusion, poverty and marginalization, and state repression. We address both a scholarly puzzle and a policy problem. If the aforementioned grievances create enabling environments conducive to violent extremism, why is it that the majority in these situations actually abstain from violence and reject extremist ideologies? What does that tell us about the role and dynamics of enabling environments? The policy problem relates to how one evaluates, weighs, and approaches populations in enabling environments and who are thus perceived to be prone to violent extremism. Put bluntly, should a population residing in an enabling environment be treated as future extremists or terrorists, to wit, a problem in need of securitization? Necessarily, these findings have consequences for how we perceive the feasibility of past and current EU funding programs intended to prevent violent extremism in the Middle East.

  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
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  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • EU
Aktuelt
Aktuelt

Forstå mer om krigen mellom Israel og Hamas

Midtøsten er i flammer. Bildene er grusomme, lidelsene er forferdelige, konflikten er gammel og synet på historien er svært delt. Her er noen gode ressurser for å skjønne litt mer om krigen mellom Israel og Hamas.
  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Midtøsten og Nord-Afrika
  • Konflikt
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