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Publikasjoner
Bok

European Actorness in a Shifting Geopolitical Order. European Strategic Autonomy Through Differentiated Integration

Det siste tiåret har den globale geopolitiske konteksten endret seg betydelig, med et geopolitisk maktskifte og et mer selvhevdende Russland og Kina. Med Russlands uprovoserte invasjon av Ukraina, har europeisk sikkerhet fått en sentral rolle. Implikasjonene av Russlands invasjon er mange og vanskelig å fullt forstå rekkevidden av. Men behovet for mer strategisk autonomi i Europa er stort. Men hvordan kan dette oppnås på kort sikt? Svaret på dette er ofte at dette er umulig og kun kan oppnås på lang sikt. Denne bokens mål er å presentere et annet perspektiv. Målet er å vise at det bør være mulig å gjøre mest mulig ut av det nåværende europeiske systemet hvis vi justerer vår oppfatning av hvordan det fungerer. Boken argumenterer for at strategisk autonomi kan skje — også på kort sikt — hvis differensiert integrasjon ses på som en fordel, heller enn en utfordring. Mens EU vil fortsette å være kjernen i et sånt system (sammen med NATO på det militære domenet), er det en rekke andre (bilaterale og multilaterale) regionale og subregionale integrasjonsprosesser som må tas med i beregningen når en skal få et fullstendig bilde av hvordan europeisk strategisk autonomi kan oppnås. Denne boken starter med et teoretisk rammeverk for hvordan man kan studere europeisk "actorness" utover EU. Deretter blir dette rammeverket brukt både på EUs utvikling som en utenrikspolitisk aktør og mekanismene for EU-utvidelse. Denne boken er open access.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • EU
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  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Knowledge Gaps in the Nexus of Climate, Peace and Security

There is a growing body of research on the relationship between climate change and peace and security. Research shows that the effects of climate change can exacerbate existing vulnerabilities, such as food and water security, and in combination with other factors can also increase the risk of violent conflict. It is increasingly recognized that actions taken to prevent and manage conflict can be coordinated and integrated with actions to mitigate and adapt to climate change. Such cross-disciplinary cooperation can generate outcomes that are beneficial for both a sustainable peace and environment. The COP27 Presidency initiative titled “Climate Responses for Sustaining Peace” (CRSP), has taken a leading role in this movement by spearheading a discursive pivot from a climate security nexus towards a climate and peacebuilding nexus, with multifaceted and holistic approaches. The literature on how to integrate climate adaption and mitigation actions in efforts to build sustainable peace is still underdeveloped. However, there are related fields, such as the relationship between peace, conflict and natural resource management that may offer comparable lessons. This policy paper takes stock of the existing knowledge and identifies knowledge gaps for policy practice in the crucial, complex and emergent field of climate, peace and security. It classifies significant gaps in our actionable knowledge by sorting them into operational knowledge gaps, climate finance knowledge gaps, and gaps in the knowledge infrastructure.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Konflikt
  • Klima
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  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Konflikt
  • Klima
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Det å stå utenfor EU gjør ikke Norges klimapolitikk mer ambisiøs

Artikkelen diskuterer Norges klimapolitikk i lys av landets utenforskap. Til tross for påstander om at Norge, utenfor EU, kan ha større autonomi i utformingen av klimapolitikken, viser studien at dette ikke nødvendigvis fører til mer ambisiøse klimamål. Siden 2009 har Norge valgt å innordne seg etter EU, samarbeide på klimaområdet og oppdatere sine mål i tråd med de europeiske. Gjennom en sammenligning med Sverige, kommer artikkelen frem til at EU-medlemskapet ikke har begrenset Sveriges evne til å forfølge en ambisiøs klimapolitikk nasjonalt og internasjonalt. Artikkelen avdekker også utfordringene Norge står overfor som følge av sitt utenforskap, spesielt innenfor energisektoren, hvor avhengigheten av vannkraft og olje- og gassindustrien vanskeliggjør klimapolitiske tiltak. På tross av Norges internasjonale initiativer innen klimafinansiering og skogbevaring, argumenterer artikkelen for at EU-medlemskap ikke nødvendigvis ville begrense Norges ambisjoner som global klimaleder. Til slutt peker studien på utfordringene ved å stå utenfor EU og understreker behovet for en grundig vurdering av de potensielle fordelene og begrensningene ved utenforskapet.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Klima
  • EU
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  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Klima
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Bok

External Voting: The Patterns and Drivers of Central European Migrants' Homeland Electoral Participation

This open access book is the first monograph that brings together insights from comparative politics, political sociology, and migration studies to introduce the current state of knowledge on external voting and transnational politics. Drawing on new data gathered within the DIASPOlitic project, which created a comparative dataset of external voting results for 6 countries of origin and 17 countries of residence as well as an extensive qualitative dataset of 80 in-depth interviews with four groups of migrants, this book not only illustrates theoretical problems with empirical material, but also provides answers to previously unaddressed questions. The empirical material focuses on the European context. The Eastern Enlargement of the European Union (2004-2007) triggered a westward wave of migration from Central and Eastern European countries which faced the expansion of existing émigré communities and the emergence of new ones. As this process coincided with the expansion of migrant voting rights, the result is a large set of populous diaspora communities which can potentially have a significant impact on country electoral politics, making the study of external voting highly relevant. This book’s introduction takes stock of current research on transnational politics and external voting, presenting core puzzles. The following chapter introduces the context of intra-European migration and the political situation in Central-Eastern European sending countries. The next two sections address the empirical puzzles, drawing on new quantitative and qualitative. The conclusion takes stock of the evidence gathered, discusses the normative problem of non-resident voters enfranchisement, connects external voting to the broader debate on political remittances and finally, maps the terrain ahead for future research.

  • Migrasjon
  • Styring
  • EU
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  • Migrasjon
  • Styring
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Research paper

Changing or frozen narratives? The Arctic in Russian media and expert commentary, 2021–2022

Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022 has brought Russia–West relations to its lowest point since the Cold War. Relations in the Arctic region are not excepted, evidenced not least by the other seven member states’ pausing their participation in Russia’s Arctic Council chairmanship (which concluded in May 2023). To the extent that “Arctic exceptionalism” – the notion that the Arctic has been characterised by a cooperative mode between Russia and the West which has remained relatively untouched by increasing tensions elsewhere – was ever an appropriate description, Western analysts have now declared it firmly dead. How does this situation look from within Russia? This research paper investigates how the Russian state media and the foreign policy expert community have portrayed the Arctic in 2021 and 2022. How much change has been seen since the beginning of the full-scale invasion of Ukraine? By surveying “the story about the Arctic” as presented by mainstream narrators and experts, we gain insights into, among other things, how changes in Arctic cooperation, sanctions, the role of China in the Arctic, and the question of climate change are conveyed to Russian audiences. The paper proceeds as follows. We start by briefly explaining the methods and data used. We then present a portrayal of the Arctic in Russia’s government’s newspaper Rossiiskaya gazeta, followed by the role of the Arctic in analyses published by the Russian International Affairs Council and the journal Russia in Global Affairs. Lastly, we conclude by discussing a general continuity in the way the Arctic is framed in the material, and foreground three core themes: climate change, security, and cooperation.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • Arktis
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  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Russland og Eurasia
  • Arktis
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport

Stormaktenes militærmakt: Militær kapasitet og muligheter for å bidra med forsterkninger til Norge

Norsk forsvarspolitikk bygger på en tro på at medlemskapet i NATO og partnerskap med viktige allierte vil sikre at Norge får militære forsterkninger dersom en krig bryter ut. Kollektivt forsvar og bilateralt samarbeid er to av tre grunnpilarer i det norske forsvarskonseptet (Figur 1). USA, Storbritannia, Tyskland og Frankrike er regnet som de viktigste stormaktene i NATO. Denne rapporten gir et bilde av hvordan disse stormaktenes væpnede styrker er utformet, hvordan de utvikler seg, hva de er i stand til å gjøre, og hvor mye de kan gjøre på en gang. Hensikten er å forbedre forståelsen av hva Norge kan forvente å få av militær støtte i krig.

  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Nord-Amerika
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  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Nord-Amerika
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Rapport
Asha Ali, Cedric H. de Coning, Ingvild Brox Brodtkorb, Minoo Koefoed, Thor Olav Iversen, Anne Funnemark, Florian Krampe, Kyungmee Kim, Kheira Tarif, Katongo Seyuba

Climate, Peace and Security Fact Sheet: Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is faced with a confluence of climate change, environmental degradation, resource exploitation and conflict dynamics that is exacerbating insecurity in the country. The dual impact of climate change and the global green energy transition risks deepening divisions over resource management and fostering intercommunal conflict over resources such as land and water. Climate related security risks threaten to undermine human security through increased livelihood and food insecurity and changing patterns of transhumance.

  • Afrika
  • Konflikt
  • Klima
  • FN
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  • Afrika
  • Konflikt
  • Klima
  • FN
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

A more strategic European Union in a more contested space

Space is becoming an increasingly important domain for societies and politics alike, also from a geopolitical and hence security and defence perspective. The EU is a key actor in space, but its approach to space is changing in a more uncertain and contested geopolitical environment. While still focused largely on the civilian aspects of space, the EU has developed a more strategic approach towards space, increasingly using the domain also for security and defence, including military, purposes. As the EU develops quickly in a more challenging and uncertain environment, Norway needs to understand EU developments and their implications at an early stage, and work to secure participation where interests align.

  • EU
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  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
kapittel

EUs respons på krigen i Ukraina

  • Europa
  • Konflikt
  • EU
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  • Europa
  • Konflikt
  • EU
Publikasjoner
Publikasjoner
Policy brief

Command and Control in Northern Europe: Challenges and Potential Solutions

Command and control (C2) is a fundamental requirement for military action. Despite the regional tensions currently faced in Northern Europe, however, deficiencies remain in NATO’s current system. As such, this policy brief examines NATO’s ability to perform C2 amid the region’s evolving security landscape, and how this might be strengthened going forward. The brief concludes that the newly established Joint Forces Command (JFC) Norfolk should assume responsibility for Allied C2 in regional crisis management and conflict. •NATO enlargement, coupled with technological and political changes – including the rise of China and Russian aggression in Ukraine and other parts of Europe – has placed new demands on Allied C2 arrangements. •More specifically, the entry of Finland and (soon) Sweden into NATO has spurred debate over the future C2 architecture for NATO forces in the Nordic–Baltic region. •Following the end of the Cold War, NATO chose to abolish its existing C2 architecture, which was designed to counter the Soviet threat in Europe and the North Atlantic, and instead focus on out-of-area operations. •Russia’s invasion of Georgia in 2008, and especially its invasion of Ukraine in 2014, have led to changes in NATO’s military organisation, notably the establishment of a new JFC in Norfolk, Virginia.

  • Forsvar
  • NATO
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  • Forsvar
  • NATO
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