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Vitenskapelig artikkel

How the UK’s post-Brexit foreign policy came home

After leaving the EU, the UK needed to rethink its place in the world. Kristin Haugevik and Øyvind Svendsen examine the aspirations and meanings underpinning the “Global Britain” narrative and argue that its scope and ambitions have changed significantly in the years following the Brexit referendum.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Europa
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Policy brief

Adapting to turbulent waters: EU maritime security and implications for Norway

Maritime security has become a top priority for the EU, as evident in its Strategic Compass for security and defence (2022) where it was identified as a strategic domain. The intensification of geopolitical tensions has further extended strategic competition to the seas. At the same time, a proliferation of threats has emerged at sea, including the security of migration routes, human rights at sea, implications of climate change and global warming, and the pressing challenges posed by organised crime and marine terrorism. The attacks on the Nord Stream pipelines have heightened the urgency for safeguarding critical infrastructure at sea, for surveillance, and coastal and offshore patrolling. Governance of the high seas invites further challenges. They are considered part of the Global Commons that, as with outer space, the atmosphere and the poles, are largely beyond the jurisdiction of nation states. Against the backdrop of escalating tensions and decline in international cooperation, enhancing the EU’s maritime presence has been recognised not only as a paramount security imperative, but also as an economic interest of the Member States: The EU has the largest maritime territory in the world (counting exclusive economic zones), is home to 329 key seaports and most goods to and from Europe travel via the sea (90% of trade exports). In addition, up to 99% of global dataflows travel via subsea cables, and the EU’s energy dependence on oil and gas, which largely travels to the EU via the sea, remains high. Maritime security is thus among the fastest-growing EU policy areas. In addition to the threats listed above, Russia and China's increasing assertiveness at sea has intensified longer term processes towards an increasingly robust and multifaceted EU maritime foreign and security policy.

  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • NATO
  • EU
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  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • NATO
  • EU
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Publikasjoner
Rapport

Collective defence in Europe: What place for the EU?

Collective defence is the cornerstone of Europe’s security architecture, anchored in NATO’s Article 5 stating that an attack against one ally is an attack against all. With the deteriorating security environment in Europe, questions have been asked about whether, and if so how, the EU’s clause on mutual defence – article 42(7) of the Treaty on European Union – could be operationalized and perhaps be a supplement to NATO’s article 5 as a guarantor of collective defence in Europe. The debate is driven by perceived limits in NATO’s ability to deal with hybrid threats, the broader implications of Russia’s war on Ukraine, and the necessity for European states to take more responsibility for their security. For EU member states to succeed with its collective defence obligations within the union, political will, legal interoperability with NATO and capability development should be addressed further.

  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • EU
PB1023.PNG
  • Forsvar
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • EU
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Publikasjoner
kapittel

NATO and Transatlantic Security Relations

NATO is considered the most important institution in the transatlantic security relationship. Its history is marked by continuity, resilience, and deliberate adaptation to an ever-changing and more complex security environment. This chapter seeks to assess some of the key historical turning points to shed light on how NATO has managed to remain relevant throughout all these years, and in particular how have the recent turbulent years in Washington D.C. and the renewed tensions with Russia have impacted the organisation. We will argue that a combination of strong US engagement and leadership with a broadly shared threat perception among Allies (primarily towards Russia) is the combination that continues to make NATO a significant embodiment of transatlantic security relations.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • NATO
Routledge2.PNG
  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • NATO
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Naturalisation through mainstreaming Counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation in UN and EU discourse

In the aftermath of the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, counter-terrorism was initially pursued throughout the world as a matter of exceptional ‘hard security’. International and national authorities generally position terrorism as a uniquely threatening phenomenon warranting delineated budgets, systems, and structures within the law enforcement and defence realms. However, with the growing focus on radicalisation as assumedly essential in leading to terrorism and counter-radicalisation as an ever more central part of counter-terrorism, its scope was expanded far beyond the ‘hard security’ field; counter-radicalisation enabled the growth and integration of counter-terrorism into ‘softer’ societal sectors. This chapter argues that this shift from a hard security framing of counter-terrorism to a broadening of its scope through a foregrounding of counter-radicalisation should be conceptualised as a process of ‘mainstreaming’. After explaining the concept of mainstreaming and how it captures this development, the chapter offers a brief discourse analysis of such mainstreaming through the lens of key official UN and EU counter-terrorism documents. On the basis of this investigation, the chapter finds that the discursive mainstreaming of counter-terrorism and counter-radicalisation suggests their ‘naturalisation’.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Styring
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  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Terrorisme og ekstremisme
  • Styring
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Vitenskapelig artikkel

Everyday migration hierarchies: negotiating the EU’s visa regime

Kritiske sikkerhetsstudier har kastet uvurderlig lys over de diffuse statlige teknologiene og skadelige effektene av EUs grensepraksis. Mens forskere har fokusert på erfaringene til prekære migrantgrupper, antyder denne artikkelen at å utvide vårt kritiske blikk til å inkludere tilsynelatende privilegerte migranter kan ytterligere forstå hvor langt usikkerheten produsert av EUs migrasjonsregime når. Med fokus på migrasjonsprosessen til internasjonale studenter i Norge, spør denne artikkelen om hvordan disse migrantene opplever, teoretiserer og forhandler om EUs visumregime og dets statlige teknologier. Vi viser hvordan deres subjektive forståelser av «brede» og «smale» hierarkier av visumregimet utspiller seg i deres byråkratiske møter, og påvirker deres hverdag. Til syvende og sist viser artikkelen hvordan regimets disiplinære effekter strekker seg lenger enn tidligere kritisk forskning har satt pris på.

  • Migrasjon
  • EU
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  • Migrasjon
  • EU
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Vitenskapelig artikkel

The EU and the governance of the Maritime Global Space

This article investigates the extent to which the European Union (EU) contributes to the governance of Global Spaces by exploring its policies towards the maritime domain. In a more competitive and uncertain geopolitical setting, are the EU’s policies changing and becoming more strategic? Or does the EU continue to promote multilateral cooperation and regulation of the maritime Global Space, and if so, what type of governance regimes does it promote? Developing and applying three analytical models of Global Space policies, the article finds that the EU has been consistent in its approach, which reflects a combination of its strong interest in free navigation and an attempt to achieve sustainable growth through climate regulation. Despite more geopolitical conflict in these areas and in international relations more broadly, the EU’s approach to the maritime Global Space is to promote international governance regimes.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Styring
  • EU
JEI23.PNG
  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Styring
  • EU
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

The EU and the governance of the Maritime Global Space

This article investigates the extent to which the European Union (EU) contributes to the governance of Global Spaces by exploring its policies towards the maritime domain. In a more competitive and uncertain geopolitical setting, are the EU’s policies changing and becoming more strategic? Or does the EU continue to promote multilateral cooperation and regulation of the maritime Global Space, and if so, what type of governance regimes does it promote? Developing and applying three analytical models of Global Space policies, the article finds that the EU has been consistent in its approach, which reflects a combination of its strong interest in free navigation and an attempt to achieve sustainable growth through climate regulation. Despite more geopolitical conflict in these areas and in international relations more broadly, the EU’s approach to the maritime Global Space is to promote international governance regimes.

  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Styring
  • EU
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  • Utenrikspolitikk
  • Styring
  • EU
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Publikasjoner
Vitenskapelig artikkel

Reflex to turn: the rise of turn-talk in International Relations

Feltet for internasjonale relasjoner (IR) blir snurret rundt av et tilsynelatende uendelig antall "turns". Eksisterende analyser av dreiing er få i antall og hovedsakelig opptatt av de mest fremtredende nyere turns. Ved å grave ut den glemte historien til IRs tidligste turns fra 1980-tallet og spore utviklingen av turn-talk over tid, avslører denne artikkelen en avgjørende, men oversett internalistisk driver bak fenomenet: fremveksten av refleksivitet. I stedet for å dukke opp i det 21. århundre, begynte turn-talk på slutten av 1980-tallet som en serie vendinger bort fra positivisme og mot refleksivitet. Kumulativt ville denne første bølgen av turns denaturalisere IRs statssentriske ontologi, samtidig som refleksivitet er et kanonisk gode blant kritiske forskere. På midten av 1990-tallet hadde imidlertid disse metateoretiske kritikkene av positivismen gitt et betydelig tilbakeslag. Anklaget for å fremme en esoterisk dekonstruktivisme, satte en ny generasjon refleksiviste ut for å demonstrere gjennomførbarheten av post-positivistisk empirisk forskning. Som et resultat tok IRs turning også en annen form enn på 2000-tallet: mens den første bølgen av turns hadde satt i gang et epistemologisk og metodologisk angrep mot den positivistiske mainstream, begynte den andre bølgen å bringe nye ontologiske objekter under gransking av refleksivistiske forskere. Dette skiftet fra anti-positivistisk til for det meste intra-refleksivistisk turning ble tilrettelagt av institusjonaliseringen av kritisk IR som et viktig underfelt av disiplinen. Det er refleksivitets priviligerte posisjon blant kritiske IR-forskere som er betingelsen for muligheten for uendelig turning, fremhevet av økende press for å demonstrere nyhet i et stadig mer konkurransepreget miljø.

  • Historisk IR
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  • Historisk IR
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Publikasjoner
Rapport

A Shared Commitment: African-Nordic Peace and Security Cooperation

Over the past decade, the Nordic countries – Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden – have strengthened their relationship with African states and societies by supporting the African Peace and Security Archi- tecture and promoting African involvement in conflict prevention, media- tion, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding efforts. This report offers an over- view of the partnership between African and Nordic countries in peace and security from 2012 to 2021. It features original case studies on Nordic country cooperation with African actors and institutions, across an array of efforts, including support to peace processes, building capacity and training for inclusive conflict management, contributing to peace opera- tions, and advancing gender equality, climate adaptation and resilience. It also includes perspectives on cross-cutting themes such as women, peace and security, youth, countering violent extremism, and partnership with the African Union. The report aims to be a resource for the policy commu- nity, mapping African-Nordic cooperation, in pursuit of peace and security in Africa.

  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Afrika
  • Fredsoperasjoner
  • Humanitære spørsmål
  • Styring
  • Internasjonale organisasjoner
  • AU
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  • Sikkerhetspolitikk
  • Utviklingspolitikk
  • Afrika
  • Fredsoperasjoner
  • Humanitære spørsmål
  • Styring
  • Internasjonale organisasjoner
  • AU
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